The effect of a selected training program and neurofeedback training and combined method on attention and impulsivity in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student in Motor Development, Kish International Campus, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Motor Development, Faculty of Sports Sciences, University of Tehran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior and Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 professor of physiology،physiology & pharmacology dept،pasteur of iran،pasteur avenue،tehran،iran


The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a selected training program and neurofeedback and combined method on attention and impulsivity in children with ADHD. total of 48 children 7-11 years with ADHD were selected from Psychology Clinic in Tehran and randomly divided into four groups control . Symptoms of attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder had been diagnosed by a psychiatrist over the past month based on DSM-IV criteria. The three experimental groups performed neurofeedback training, selected exercises and combined exercises (neurofeedback training and selected exercises) for 24 sessions and 60 minutes each session, respectively; But the control group did not receive any intervention. Connors’ parent questionnaire was used to assess hyperactivity / attention deficit in children and analysis of covariance was used to analyze the data. The results showed that between the adjusted mean of attention and impulsivity of children in neurofeedback and control training groups (p = 0.001) (in favor of neurofeedback), combination and control groups (p = 0.001) (in favor of combination), neurofeedback training groups And training program (p = 0.001) (in favor of neurofeedback), neurofeedback and combination training groups (p = 0.001), (in favor of combination), and training and combination program groups (p = 0.001) (to Combined benefit), there is a significant difference in improving attention and impulsivity. But there was no significant difference between the exercise and control program groups in reducing inattention with (p = 0.224) and between the exercise and control program groups in reducing impulsivity (p = 0.232).


  1. منابع و مآخذ

    1. Rashidpoor S, Rahavi Ezabadi R, Namazizadeh M. The effect of yoga and neurofeedback on reducing attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children 5-10 years. Journal of Sport Psychology Studies. 2017;6(20 #l00352):-.
    2. Ziereis S, Jansen P. Effects of physical activity on executive function and motor performance in children with ADHD. Research in developmental disabilities. 2015;38:181-91.
    3. Lee E-J, Jung C-H. Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study. Asian journal of psychiatry. 2017;25:16-21.
    4. Arns M, Heinrich H, Strehl U. Evaluation of neurofeedback in ADHD: the long and winding road. Biological psychology. 2014;95:108-15.
    5. Patros CH, Alderson RM, Hudec KL, Tarle SJ, Lea SE. Hyperactivity in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The influence of underlying visuospatial working memory and self-control processes. Journal of experimental child psychology. 2017;154:1-12.
    6. Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L, Fletcher K. Young adult outcome of hyperactive children: adaptive functioning in major life activities. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 2006;45(2):192-202.
    7. Holtmann M, Sonuga-Barke E, Cortese S, Brandeis D. Neurofeedback for ADHD: a review of current evidence. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics. 2014;23(4):789-806.
    8. Bakhshyesh A. Diagnosis and treatment of hyperactivity disorder and attention deficit (ADHD). Yazd:pub Yazd uinversityp 2011;234.
    9. Hammond DC. Comprehensive neurofeedback bibliography: 2007 update. Journal of Neurotherapy. 2008;11(3):45-60.
    10. Gatantino ML, Bzdewka TM, Eissler-Rnsso JL, Holbrook ML, Mogck EP, Geigle P, et al. The impact of modified Hatha yoga on chronic low back pain: a pilot study. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine. 2004;10(2).
    11. Moin N, Asadi Gandomani R, M A. The Effect of Neurofeedback on Improving Executive Functions in Children With Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. jrehab. 2018;19(3):220-7.
    12. Moghadam Mojgan , Taheri Hamidreza, Sohrabi Mehdi, Mashhadi Ali, Ali K. The effect of a selected training program on the working memory of children with attention deficit / hyperactivity disorder

    Motor behavior. 2014.

    1. Ahmadlou M, Rostami R, Sadeghi V. Which attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder children will be improved through neurofeedback therapy? A graph theoretical approach to neocortex neuronal network of ADHD. Neuroscience letters. 2012;516(1):156-60.
    2. Bluschke A, Friedrich J, Schreiter ML, Roessner V, Beste C. A comparative study on the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying effects of methylphenidate and neurofeedback on inhibitory control in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. NeuroImage: Clinical. 2018;20:1191-203.
    3. Saeed Arsham, Farhad Ghadiri, Babak M. The efficiency system tells you two methods of neurofeedback training intervention and brother's movement 9 so that you can have special authority. Journal of Arak University of Medical Sciences. 2017;9.
    4. Shuai L, Daley D, Wang Y-F, Zhang J-S, Kong Y-T, Tan X, et al. Executive function training for children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Chinese medical journal. 2017;130(5):549.
    6. Cleland C, Magura S, Foote J, Rosenblum A, Kosanke N. Factor structure of the Conners Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS) for substance users. Addictive Behaviors. 2006;31(7):1277-82.
    7. Niv S. Clinical efficacy and potential mechanisms of neurofeedback. Personality and Individual Differences. 2013;54(6):676-86.
    8. Kouijzer ME, van Schie HT, de Moor JM, Gerrits BJ, Buitelaar JK. Neurofeedback treatment in autism. Preliminary findings in behavioral, cognitive, and neurophysiological functioning. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders. 2010;4(3):386-99.
    9. Maddigan B, Hodgson P, Heath S, Dick B, John KS, McWilliam-Burton T, et al. The effects of massage therapy & exercise therapy on children/adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. The Canadian child and adolescent psychiatry review. 2003;12(2):40.
    10. Janssen T, Geladé K, Bink M, van Mourik R, Twisk J, Maras A, et al. Long-term effects of theta/beta neurofeedback on EEG power spectra in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Clinical Neurophysiology. 2020.
    11. Cooke S, Bliss T. Plasticity in the human central nervous system. Brain. 2006;129(7):1659-73.
    12. Micoulaud-Franchi J-A, Mcgonigal A, Lopez R, Daudet C, Kotwas I, Bartolomei F. Electroencephalographic neurofeedback: Level of evidence in mental and brain disorders and suggestions for good clinical practice. Neurophysiologie Clinique/Clinical Neurophysiology. 2015;45(6):423-33.
    13. Gadea M, Aliño M, Hidalgo V, Espert R, Salvador A. Effects of a single session of SMR neurofeedback training on anxiety and cortisol levels. Neurophysiologie Clinique. 2020.
    14. Jeunet C, Glize B, McGonigal A, Batail J-M, Micoulaud-Franchi J-A. Using EEG-based brain computer interface and neurofeedback targeting sensorimotor rhythms to improve motor skills: Theoretical background, applications and prospects. Neurophysiologie Clinique. 2019;49(2):125-36.
    15. JE H. Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier. 2011;107.
    16. Gupta R, Kar BR. Development of attentional processes in ADHD and normal children. Progress in brain research. 2009;176:259-76.
    17. Torabi F, Ebrahim R, Hemayattalab R. The effect of high intensity interval training on serum serotonin and perceptual-motor skills in boys’ student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pajoohandeh Journal. 2016;21(3):167-73.
    18. Wendt M. The effect of an activity program designed with intense physical exercise on the behavior of ADHD children. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, State University of New York, Buffalo. 2000.

Articles in Press, Accepted Manuscript
Available Online from 21 January 2023
  • Receive Date: 06 September 2020
  • Revise Date: 17 November 2020
  • Accept Date: 14 November 2020
  • First Publish Date: 04 February 2022