Document Type : Research Paper
PhD student of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
Associate Professor of Tehran University, Tehran, Iran
Professor of Social welfare and Rehabilitation University, Tehran, Iran
The aim of this research was to determine the effect of selective exercise training on reducing the symptom of hypotonia and changing body composition in Down syndrome adults. The research was performed in Nemoneh Disability Rehabilitation Centre of Tehran. 24 men with Down syndrome (mean age 26.185± 3.933) were randomly assigned to either a control (n=11) or an experimental group (n=13). The Experimental groups followed selective exercise training for 12-weeks, three times a week. Result of this research showed that after 12 weeks selective exercise training, body fat percent had a significant reduction (P<0.05) and soft lean mass and muscle performance (in 5 from 6 tests for assess muscle strength, endurance and power) had a significant increase (P<0.05). The results of this study showed that this type of exercise training significantly improves the health of Down syndrome adults by reduce in extra body fat percent and increase in muscles tissue and performance and in this way; it will reduce the symptoms of Down syndrome for benefit of improved physical health.
1. سرلک زهرا، کاشی علی، شریعتزاده جنیدی محمد. تأثیر یک دوره برنامۀ تمرینی منتخب بر عملکرد قلبی و عروقی بزرگسالان سندروم داون. فیزیولوژی ورزشی. 1392؛ 19: 32-15.
2. کاشی علی، سرلک زهرا، نقیبی سعید. تأثیر یک دوره برنامۀ تمرینی منتخب بر کاهش علائم دیمنشیا ناشی از بیماری آلزایمر در بزرگسالان سندروم داون. رفتار حرکتی. 1392؛ 14: 67-47.
- Agiovlasitis, S., McCubbin, JA., Yun, J., Pavol, MJ., Widrick, JJ. (2009). Economy and preferred speed of walking in adults with and without Down syndrome. Adapted physical activity quarterly. 26(2), pp.118-30.
- Alan, H., Carol, B., Rafat, H., Emma, J. (2006). The four ages of Down syndrome. European Journal of Public Health. Vol. 17, No. 2, pp. 221–225.
- American Academy of Pediatrics. (2001). Health supervision for children with Down syndrome. Pediatrics 107, 442–9.
- American College of Sports Medicine. (2004). Physical activity programs and behavior counseling in older adult populations. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 36(11), 1997–2003.
- Andriolo, RB., Dib, RP., Ramos, L., Atallah, AN., da Silva, EM. (2010). Aerobic exercise training programmes for improving physical and psychosocial health in adults with Down syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 12 (5), CD005176.
- Barbara, H. Beth, T. (1985). Performance of Retarded Children, with and Without Down syndrome, on the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Physical therapy. pp. 344-348.
- Barnhart, R, C., Connolly, B. Aging and Down Syndrome:Implications for Physical Therapy. Volume 87 Number 10 Physical Therapy. 2007.
- Barreto, F., Gomes, G., Seixas da Silva, I. (2007). Proposal of a multidisciplinary program for an individual with down syndrome, through activities of riding therapy, from the principles of human motricity. Fit Perf J, Rio de Janeiro. 6(2). pp. 82-88.
- Bauer, J., Teufel, U., Doege, C., Gausepohl, H.J., Beedgen, B., & Linderkamp, O. (2003). Energy expenditure in neonates with Down syndrome. Journal of Pediatrics, 143, 264-266.
- Bittles, A, H., Bower, C., Hussain, R., Glasson, E, J. The four ages of Down syndrome. (2006). European Journal of Public Health, Vol. 17, No. 2, 221–225.
- Boada, M., Alegret, M., Buendia, M., Hernández, I., Viñas, G., Espinosa, A., Lara, A., Guitart, M., Tárraga, L. (2008). The usefulness of standard neuropsychological testing for adults with Down syndrome and dementia. International Medical Journal on Down syndrome. vol. 12, number. 1, pp. 2-7.
- Bodensteiner, J., Smith, S. & Schaefer, G. (2003). Hypotonia, congenital hearing loss, and hypoactive labyrinths, Journal of Child Neurology, 18, 171–173.
- Cioni M, Cocilovo, A, Di Pasquale F. (1994). Strength deficit of knee extensor muscles of individuals with Down’s syndrome syndrome from childhood to adolescence. Am J Mental Retard. 99: 166–74.
- Connolly, H, Michael, BT. (1986). Performance of retarded children, with and without Down’s syndrome syndrome, on the Bruininks Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Physical Therapy. 66: 344–8.
- Cowley, PM., Ploutz-Snyder, LL., Baynard, T., Heffernan, KS., Young Jae, S., Hsu, S., Lee, M., Pitetti, KH., Reiman, MP., Fernhall, B. (2011). The effect of progressive resistance training on leg strength, aerobic capacity and functional tasks of daily living in persons with Down syndrome. Disabil Rehabil. [Epub ahead of print]
- Cress, M.E., Buchner, D.M., Prohaska, T., Rimmer, J., Brown, M., Macera, C., Dipietro, L., and Chodzko-Zajko, W. (2005). Best practices for physical activity programs and behavior counseling in older adult populations. J. Aging Phys. Act. 13(1), 61–74.
- Cristiana Barreto, A., Souto Maior, A. A., Menezes, P., Willardson, J. M., José Silva, A., et al. (2010). Excess post-exercise oxygen consumption and resistance training. International SportMed Journal, Vol.11 No.1, pp. 235-243.
- Croce, R.V., Pitetti, K.H., Horvat, M., & Miller, J. (1996). Peak torque, average power, and hamstrings/quadriceps ratios in nondisabled adults and adults with mental retardation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 77, 369–372.
- Cronk, C.E., Chumlea, C.W., and Roche, A.F. (1985). Assessment of overweight children with trisomy 21. Am. J.Ment. Defic. 89, 433–436.
- Deb, S., Hare, M., Prior, L. (2007). Symptoms of dementia among adults with Down’s syndrome: a qualitative study. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research. volume 51 part 9 pp 726–739 september 2007.
- Deb, SH., Hare, M., Prior, L., Bhaumik, P. (2007). Intellectual Disabilities Dementia. British Journal of P. Sychology. 190. 440-444.
- Deborah, J., Fidler1, and Lynn Nadel. (2007). Education and Children with Down syndrome: Neuroscience, Development, and intervention. Mental retardation and developmental disabilities. Research reviews. 13, pp. 262 – 271.
- Fernhall, B., Pitetti, K.H., Rimmer, J.H., McCubbin, J.A., Rintala, P., Millar, A.L., et al. (1996). Cardiorespiratory capacity of individuals with mental retardation including Down syndrome. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 28, 366–371.
- Fonesca, C.T., Amaral, D.M., Ribeiro, M.G., Beserra, I.C., & Guimaraes, M.M. (2005). Insulin resistance in adolescents with Down syndrome: A cross-sectional study. BMC Endocrine Disorders, 5(6). doi: 10.1186/1472-6823-5-6.
- Gallagher, D., Steven, B., Moonseong, H. H., Susan, A., Peter, J, R., Sakamoto, M. Y. (2000). Healthy percentage body fat ranges: an approach for developing guidelines based on body mass index. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, Vol. 72, Sept. 694-701.
- Galli, M., Rigoldi, c., Mainardi, L., Tenore, N., Onorati, P., Albertini, G. (2008). Postural control in patients with Down syndrome. Disability and Rehabilitation. 30(17), pp. 1274 – 1278.
- González-Agüero, A., Vicente-Rodríguez, G., Gómez-Cabello, A., Ara, I., Moreno, LA., Casajús, JA. (2011). A combined training intervention programme increases lean mass in youths with Down syndrome. Res Dev Disabil. 4. [Epub ahead of print].
- Gupta Sardar, S., krishna Rao, B. (2011). Effect of strength and balance training in children with Down’s syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Clinical Rehabilitation. 25, PP. 425–432.
- Harris, N., Rosenberg, A., Jangda, S., O’Brien, K., & Gallagher, M.L. (2003). Prevalence of obesity in International Special Olympic athletes as determined by body mass index. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 103(2), 235-237.
- Heller, T., Hsieh, K., and Rimmer, J.H. (2004) Attitudinal and psychosocial outcomes of a fitness and health education program on adults with Down syndrome. Am. J. Ment. Retard. 109(2), 175–185.
- Hernandez Reifa, M., Fielda, T., Largiea, S., Moraa, M., Bornsteinb, J., Waldmanb, R. (2006). Children with Down syndrome improved in motor functioning and muscle tone following massage therapy. Early Child Development and Care. Vol. 176, pp. 395–410.
- Heydari, S, T., Ayatollahi, S. M. T., Najaf Zare, C. (2011). Diagnostic Value of Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis versus Body Mass Index for Detection of Obesity among Students. Asian Journal of Sports Medicine, Volume 2 (Number 2), Pages: 68-74.
- Horvat, M., Pitetti, K.H., & Croce, R. (1997). Isokinetic torque, average power, and flexion/extension ratios in nondisabled adults and adults with mental retardation. TheJournal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, 25, 395–399.
- Janssen, j., Steven, B., Heymsfield, R., Robert, R. (2002). Low relative skeletal muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older persons is associated with functional impairement and physical disability. American geriatric society. JAGS. Vol. 50, NO 5, 889-896.
- Le, D., Clair and Digby, E. (1995). Movement Preparation and the Costs and Benefits Associated With Advance information for Adults With Down Syndrome. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 12, pp. 239-249.
- Lewis, CL., Fragala-Pinkham, MA. (2005). Effects of aerobic conditioning and strength training on a child with Down syndrome: a case study. Pediatr Phys Ther. 17(1), pp. 30-36.
- Lloyd, M., Burghardt, A., Ulrich, DA., Angulo-Barroso, R. (2010). Physical activity and walking onset in infants with Down syndrome. Adapt Phys Activ Q. 27(1), pp. 1-16.
- Looper, J., Ulrich, D, A. (2010). Effect of Treadmill Training and Supramalleolar Orthosis Use on Motor Skill Development in Infants With Down Syndrome: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Physical Therapy Volume 90 Number 3.
- Lotan, M. (2007). Quality Physical Intervention Activity for Persons with Down Syndrome. TheScientificWorldJOURNAL. 7, 7–19.
- Loveday, S.J., Thompson, J. M., Mitchell, E. A. (2012). Bioelectrical impedance for measuring percentage body fat in young persons with Down syndrome: validation with dual-energy absorptiometry. Acta Paediatr. 2012 Aug 17.
- Magni, P., Ruscica, M., Dozio, E., Roti, E., Licastro, F., Motta, M., & Corsi, M. (2004). Free and bound leptin in prepubertal children with Down’s syndrome and different degrees of adiposity. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 58, 1547-1549.
- Mendonca, GV., Pereira, FD., Fernhall, B. (2011). Effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training in adults with and without Down syndrome. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 92(1), pp. 37-45.
- Mercer, VS, Stemmons V, Cynthia L. (2001). Hip abductor and knee extensor muscle strength of children with and without Down’s syndrome’s syndrome. Physical Therapy. 13: 18–26.
- Murray, J., Ryan-Krause, P. (2010). Obesity in children with Down syndrome: background and recommendations for management. Pediatr Nurs. 36(6), pp.314-319.
- Nazmi, s., Pepe Osman, O, I., Serdar, B. (2011). Evaluation of body fat percentage of female university student according to three different methods. Science, Movement and Health. Vol. 11, ISSUE 2. Romania.
- Paula, F., Polastri and Jose, A., Barela. (2005). Perception-action coupling in infants with down syndrome: effect of experience and practice. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 22, pp. 39-56.
- Pitetti, KH. (1990). A reliable isokinetic strength test for arm and leg musculature for mildly mentally retarded adults. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 71, pp. 669–672.
- Ruth, E. Nieuwenhuis-Mark. (2009). Diagnosing Alzheimer’s dementia in Down syndrome: Problems and possible solutions. Research in Developmental Disabilities 30: 827–838.
- Rynkiewicz, M., Rynkiewicz, M. (2010). Bioelectrical impedance analysis of body composition and muscle mass distribution in advanced kayakers. Human Movement. vol. 11 (1), 11–16.
- Schapiro, M. B., Rapoport, S, I. (1989). Basal metabolic rate in healthy Down's syndrome adults. J Ment Defic Res. 33 ( Pt 3): 211-9.
- Shields, N., Karen J. Dodd, and Casey A. (2009). Do Children With Down Syndrome Perform Sufficient Physical Activity to Maintain Good Health? A Pilot Study. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 26, pp. 307-320.18
- Shields, N., Nicholas, F., Taylor, B., Fernhall, B. (2010). A study protocol of a randomised controlled trial to investigate if a community based strength training programme improves work task performance in young adults with Down syndrome Shields et al. BMC Pediatrics. 10(17). pp. 1-7.
- Shields, N., Taylor, NF., Dodd, KJ. (2008). Effects of a community-based progressive resistance training program on muscle performance and physical function in adult’s withDown syndrome: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 89(7), pp. 1215-1220.
- Shumway-Cook, A., Woollacott, MH. (1985). Dynamics of postural control in the child with Down’s syndrome syndrome. Physical Therapy. 65, pp.1315–1332.
- Silva, M., Silva, S. F., Filho, A. G., Filho, G. F. (2009). Comparative study of the manual handgrip force in individuals with Down syndrome Naelson. Fit Perf J. 8(5):383-8.
- Simon, B, t. (1994). A neuropsychological test battery for identifying dementia in people with down syndrome. The british journal of developmental disabilities.vol, XL, part 2, n0, 79. 135-142.
- Torr, J., Strydom, A., Patti, P., Jokinen, N. (2010). Aging in Down Syndrome: Morbidity and Mortality. ournal of Policy and Practice in Intellectual Disabilities. Volume 7 Number 1, pp 70–81.
- Tsimaras, V., Giagazoglou, P., Fotiadou, E., Christoulas, K., and Angelopoulou, N. (2003) Jog-walk training in cardiorespiratory fitness of adults with Down syndrome. Percept. Mot. Skills 96(3 Pt 2), 1239–1251.
- Tsimaras, VK., Fotiadou, EG. (2004). Effect of training on the muscle strength and dynamic balance ability of adults with Down’s syndrome syndrome.J Strength Cond Res. 18, pp. 343–347.
- Ulrich, D., Lloyd, M., Tiernan, C., Looper, J., Angulo-Barroso, R. (2008). Effects of Intensity of Treadmill Training on Developmental Outcomes and Stepping in Infants with Down syndrome: A Randomized Trial. Physical Therapy. Volume 88 Number 1, pp. 114-122.
- Ulrich, DA., Burghardt, AR., Lloyd, M., Tiernan, C., Hornyak, JE. (2011). Physical Activity Benefits of Learning to Ride a Two-Wheel Bicycle for Children With Down Syndrome: A Randomized Trial. Phys Ther. [Epub ahead of print].
- Uyanik, M., Bumin, G. & Kayihan, H. (2003). Comparison of different therapy approaches in children with Down Syndrome, Pediatrics International, 45, 68–73.
- Vassilios, K., Tsimaras and Eleni, g., Fotiadou. (2004). Effect of training on the muscle strength and dynamic balance ability of adults with down syndrome. Journal of strength and conditioning research. 18 (2), pp. 343-347.
- Villamonte, R. (2009). Reliability of sixteen balance test in individual with Down syndrome. A dissertation submitted to the faculty of Brigham Young University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy Brigham Young University. August 2009.
- Vis, JC., Duffels, MG., Winter, MM., Weijerman, ME., Cobben, JM., Huisman, SA., Mulder, BJ., (2009). Down syndrome: a cardiovascular perspective. J Intellect Disabil Res. 53: 419–425.
- Vuillerme, N., Marin, L., Debu, B. (2001). Assessment of static postural control in teenagers with Down syndrome. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly. 18, pp. 417-433.
- Wang, WY., Chang, JJ. (1997). Effects of jumping skill training on walking balance for children with mental retardation and Down's syndrome. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 13(8), pp. 487-495.
- Wang, WY., Ju, YH. (2002). Promoting balance and jumping skills in children with Down syndrome. ercept Mot Skills. 94(2), pp.443-448.
- Westerterp, K, R. (1998). Alterations in energy balance with exercise1,2. Am J Clin Nutr. 68(suppl):970S–4S.
- Whitt-Glover, M.C., O’Neill, K.L., & Stettler, N. (2006). Physical activity patterns in children with and without Down syndrome. Pediatric Rehabilitation, 9(2), 158.
- Wishart, J. G. (1993). The development of learning difficulties in children with Down’s syndrome. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 37, 389-403.