Document Type : Research Paper
Master of motor behavior, college of sport sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, College of Sport sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
Assisstant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, College of Sport sciences, University of Isfahan, Isfahan, Iran.
The main purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of different combinations of music and rhythmic movements on behavioral problems of children with mild mental retardation. A total of 40 children with mild mental retardation were randomly divided into 4 variations of practice including: rhythmic movement with major scale music, rhythmic movement with minor scale music, rhythmic movement with no music, and no rhythmic movement-no music (control group). Rutter inventory (Parent version) was used to evaluate behavioral problems. Pretest was taken before the intervention and post-test was taken after 12 weeks of practice (36 sessions). For data analysis, one-way analysis of variance and Tuki follow up tests were used. Results showed that behavioral problems of rhythmic movement with major scale music group were significantly decreased. It was also shown that the rhythmic movement with minor scale music and rhythmic movement with no music showed no significant decrease on behavioral problems of mentally retarded children. No considerable change was found in behavioral problems of the participants of the control group.
- سیف نراقی، مریم. نادری، عزتاله. (1380). "روان شناسی و آموزش کودکان استثنایی". تهران، انتشارات ارسیاران، ص 27-10.
- Abdel-Hamid, E., Ahmad Amin, M. (2011). "Pilates Exercises Influence on the Serotonin Hormone, Some Physical Variables and the Depression Degree in Battered Women". World Journal of Sport Sciences, 5 (2(, PP: 89-100.
- Altenmuller, E.O., Gruhn, W. (1997). "Music learning produces changes in brain activation patterns: a longitudinal DC-EEG-study". International Journal of Arts Medicine, 5, PP: 28-34.
- Amezcua, C., Angel G.M. (2005). "Effects of Musical Tempi on Visual Attention Erps". International Journal of Neuroscience, 115(2), PP: 193-206.
- Arnett, J. (1992). "The soundtrack of recklessness: Musical preferences and reckless behavior among adolescents". Journal on Adolesc, 7, PP: 313-331.
- Blood, D.J., Ferris, S.J. (1993). "Effects of background music on anxiety, satisfaction with communication, and productivity". Psychological Reports, 72, PP: 171-177.
- Boso, M., Enzo, M. (2007). "Effect of Long-Term Interactive Music Therapy on Behavior Profile and Musical Skilla in Young Adults with Sever Autism".The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 7, PP: 709-712.
- Broh, B.A. (2002). "Linking extracurricular programming to academic achievement: who benefits and why?" Sociology of Education, 75, PP: 69-95.
- Carpentier, F.R., Potter, R.F. (2007). "Effects of music on physiological arousal: exploration into tempo and genre". Media Psychology, 10, PP: 339-363.
- Celiberti, D. A., Bobo, H. E., Kelly, K. S. (1997). "The differential and temporal effects of antecedent exercise on the self-stimulatory behavior of a child with autism". Research in Developmental Disabilities, 18, PP: 139–150.
- Choi, A.N. (2008). "Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in children with Highly Aggressive Behavior". Ecam Advance Access published, 182, PP: 1-5.
- Clair, A.A., Bernstein, B. (1994). "The effect of no music, stimulative background music and sedative background music on agitated behaviours in persons with severe dementia". Activities, Adapt, Aging, 19, PP: 61-70.
- Clark, M.E; Lipe, A.W. (1998). "Use of music to decrease aggressive behaviorus in people with dementia". Journal Gerotol Nurs, 24, PP: 7-10.
- Copeland, B.L., Franks, B.D.(1991). "Effects of types and intensities of background music on treadmill endurance". The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 31(1), PP: 100-110
- Covington, H., Crosby, C. (1997). "Music Theory As a Nursing intervention". Journal Psycho Nurs, 24, PP: 34-70.
- Denny, A. (1997). "Quiet music: an intervention for mealtime agitation". Journal of Gerontol Nurs, 23, PP: 16-23.
- Dey, S., Singh, R. (1992). "Exercise training: Significance of regional alterations in serotonin metabolism of rat brain in relation to antidepressant effect of exercise". Physiology & Behavior, 52, PP: 1095-1099.
- Edworthy, J., Warring, H. (2006)."The effects of music tempo and loudness level on treadmill exercise". Ergonomics, 49, PP: 1597-1610.
- Evers, S., Suhr, B. (2000). "Changes of the neurotransmitter Serotonin but not of hormones during short time music perception". European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, 250 (3), PP: 144-147.
- Flint, m. (2010). "The Effect of Music on Physical Productivity". The Ohio State University at Mansfield, 23, PP: 2-38.
- Hetland, L. (2000). "Learning to make music enhances spatial reasoning". Journal of Aesthetic Education, 34(4), PP: 179-238.
- Hodges, D.A., Oconnell, D.S. (2007). "The impact of music education academic achievement. Chapter 2 in Sounds of Learning Report": NAMM Foundation Sounds of Learnin, 17, PP: 439-450.
- Karageorghis, C. I., L. Jones, et al. (2006). "Relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference". Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 77(2), PP: 240-250.
- Kellaris, J. J., Rice, R. C. (1993). "The Influence of Tempo, Loudness, and Gender of Listener on Responses to Music". Psychology & Marketing, 10(1), P: 15-29.
- Kern, L., Koegel, R. L. (1984). "The influence of vigorous versus mild exercise on autistic stereotyped behaviors". Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 14, PP: 57–67.
- Lippin, R.A., Micozzi, M.S. (2006). "Art therapy". Fundamentals of Complentary, 33, PP: 37-58.
- Matsui, T. (2001). "Music therapy in pediatrics". Journal of the japan medical association, 44(5), PP: 241-144.
- Meeusen, R., Meirleir, K. D. (1995). "Exercise and brain neurotransmission". Sports Medicine, 20, PP: 160-188.
- Miranda, D., Claes, M. (2004). "Rap music genres and deviant behaviors in French-Canadian adolescents". Journal of Youth Adolesc, 33, PP: 113-122.
- Pratt, R.R. (2004). "Art, Dance, and music therapy".Physical Medicine And Rehabilitation Clinics Of North America, 15, PP: 827-841.
- Ragneskog, H., Kihlgren, M., Karlsson, I. (1996). "Dinner music for demented patients: analysis of video-recorded observations". Clin Nurs Res, 5, PP: 262-77.
- Sabaghian, L., Hafezi, F. (2013). "The effect of motivational music during exercise on the performance of elite female swimmers". European Journal of Experimental Biology, 3(3), PP: 106-110.
- Schoenecker, B., Heller, K. E. (2001). "The involvement of dopamine and serotonin (5-ht) in stress-induced stereotypies in bank voles (clethrionomys glareolus)". Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 73, PP: 311–319.
- Webster, G.D., & Weir, C.G. (2005). "Emotional Responses to Music: Interactive Effects of Mode, Texture, and Tempo". Motivation and Emotion, 29(1), PP: 19-39.
- Whipple, J. (2004). "Music in intervention for children and adolescents". Journal Music Ther, 41, 90-106.
- Wigram, T. Debacker, J. (1999). "Clinical applications of music therapy in psychiatry". Lon den Jessica king sky publishers. PP: 196-250.
- Wipfli, B. M. (2008). "Serotonin and psychological variables in the relationship between exercise and mental health. Arizona State University)". Proquest Dissertations and Theses/Retrievedfromhttp://search.proquest.com/docview, PP: 81-89.
- Yamamoto, T., Ohkuwa, T. (2003). "Effects of pre-exercise listening to slow and fast rhythm music on supramaximal cycle performance and selected metabolic variables". Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry, 111(3), PP: 211-214.
- Ziv, G., Lidor, R. (2011). "Music, exercise performance, and adherence in clinical populations and in the elderly: A review". Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 5(1), PP: 1-23.