Document Type : Research Paper



the purpose of this research was the effect of visual concurrent feedback on balance ability in 7-13 years old girls. Hence, for this purpose, thirty-four girls student (ranging 7-12 years old) were participated in this study. The students were divided to three group randomly, control, closed eyes and mirror visual concurrent feedback groups, after stork balance test pre-test. Then, groups under interventions completed related trainings. In the present study used paired t-test for comparison of intra-group and one- way ANOVA for inter group (p≤0.05). The result of ANOVA showed that there was no significant difference between pre-test (p≥0/05). But, there was significant improvement in mirror group compared to control group (p=0.001) and closed eyes group (p=0.001). In addition to, the result of paired t-test indicated that only the mirror group has significant progress (p=0.007) in balance and the other groups have significant decrements. Therefore, concurrent feedback in children by use of a mirror to show them self can be improve their balance ability


  1. ابراهیمی تکامجانی، اسماعیل، نوربخش، محمدرضا،و بصیری، شبنم. (1379). "بررسی تأثیر اطلاعات حسی بر کنترل تعادل در وضعیت ایستاده در سنین مختلف". مجلۀ دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایران171. سال هفتم / ش 21: 176-171.
  2. استیری، زهرا، عرب عامری، الهه، حمایت‌طلب، رسول، شیخ، محمود، حجازی، الهه، رهاوی، رزا، و چشمی، علی. (1390). "تأثیر بازخورد به کوشش‌های موفق و ناموفق بر یادگیری تکالیف ردیابی ساده و پیچیده. رشد و یادگیری حرکتی ورزش" . ش 13: 25-5.
  3. اشمیت، ریچارد ای. دیی. لی، تیموتی.(1391). "یادگیری و کنترل حرکتی". ترجمۀ رسول حمایت‌طلب، عبدالله قاسمی. انتشارات علم وحرکت. تهران. فصل 5: 225-198.
  4. سالاری، اسماء، صاحب زمانی، منصور،و دانشمندی، حسن. (1392). "تأثیر تمرینات پایداری ناحیۀ مرکزی بدن بر تعادل ورزشکاران زن نابینا". مجلۀ دانشگاه علوم پزشکی کرمان، دورۀ بیستم، ش 6: 595-585.
  5. صالح، وحید و صادقی، حیدر.(1391). "مقایسۀ آزمون‌های رایج ارزیابی تعادل روی ژیمناست‌های مبتدی و حرفه‌ای 6 تا­­­8 ساله با تأکید بر برخی ویژگی‌های آنتروپومتریکی". پژوهش در علوم زیستی و فعالیت بدنی. دورۀ 1، ش 1: 10-1.
  6. عبدلی، بهروز، شمسی پور دهکردی ، پروانه ،و شمس، امیر.(1389). "دستکاری بینایی در طول حفظ تعادل پویا :مطالعۀ فرضیۀ اختصاصی بودن تمرین". المپیک، سال هجدهم ، ش 1(پیاپی49):105-95.
  7.  Bass, RI. (1939). "An analysis of the components of tests of semicircular canal function and of static and dynamic balance". Research Quarterly American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation.10(2):33-52.
  8. Bennett, S., Davids, K.( 1995). "The manipulation of vision during the powerlift squat: Exploring the boundaries of the specificity of learning hypothesis". Research Quarterly for Exercise and sport.66(3):210-8.
  9. Cacchio, A., De Blasis, E., De Blasis, V., Santilli, V., Spacca, G. (2009). "Mirror therapy in complex regional pain syndrome type 1 of the upper limb in stroke patients". Neurorehabilitation and neural repair..
  10. Camachon, C., Jacobs, DM., Huet, M., Buekers, M., Montagne, G. (2007). "The role of concurrent feedback in learning to walk through sliding doors". Ecological Psychology.19(4):367-82.
  11. Clark, J E., D. L. Watkins. (1984). "Static balance in young children." Child development: 854-857.
  12. Cushing, SL., Chia, R., James, AL., Papsin, BC., Gordon, KA.( 2008). "A test of static and dynamic balance function in children with cochlear implants: the vestibular olympics". Archives of Otolaryngology–Head & Neck Surgery.134(1):34-8.
  13. Feltham, MG., Ledebt, A., Deconinck, FJ., Savelsbergh, GJ. (2010). "Mirror visual feedback induces lower neuromuscular activity in children with spastic hemiparetic cerebral palsy". Research in developmental disabilities.31(6):1525-35.
  14. Figura, F., Cama, G., Capranica, L., Guidetti, L., Pulejo, C. (1991). "Assessment of static balance in children". Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness.31(2):235-42.
  15. Gawande, A. (2008). "The ITCH Its mysterious power may be a clue to a new theory about brains and bodies". The New Yorker.
  16. Geldhof , E., Cardon, G., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Danneels, L., Coorevits, P., Vanderstraeten, G., et al. (2006). "Static and dynamic standing balance: test-retest reliability and reference values in 9 to 10 year old children". European journal of pediatrics.165(11):779-86.
  17. Geldhof, E., Cardon, G., De Bourdeaudhuij, I., Danneels, L., Coorevits, P., Vanderstraeten, G., et al. ( 2006). "Static and dynamic standing balance: test-retest reliability and reference values in 9 to 10 year old children". European journal of pediatrics.165(11):779-86.
  18. Huet, M., Camachon, C., Fernandez, L., Jacobs, DM., Montagne, G. (2009). "Self-controlled concurrent feedback and the education of attention towards perceptual invariants". Human Movement Science. 28(4):450-67.
  19. Lahtinen, U., Rintala, P., Malin, A. (2007). "Physical performance of individuals with intellectual disability: A 30-year follow-up". Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly.24(2):125.
  20. McCabe, C., Haigh, R., Ring, E., Halligan, P., Wall, P., Blake, D. ( 2003). "A controlled pilot study of the utility of mirror visual feedback in the treatment of complex regional pain syndrome (type 1)". Rheumatology. 42(1):97-101.
  21. Meneghetti, C., Blascovi-Assis, S., Deloroso, F., Rodrigues, G. (2009). "Static balance assessment among children and adolescents with Down syndrome". Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy.13(3):230-5.
  22. Mickle, KJ., Munro, BJ., Steele, JR. (2011). "Gender and age affect balance performance in primary school-aged children". Journal of science and medicine in sport.14(3):243-8
  23. Mohan, U. (2013). "Effectiveness of mirror therapy on lower extremity motor recovery, balance and mobility in patients with acute stroke: A randomized sham-controlled pilot trial". Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology.16(4):634.
  24. Notarnicola, A., Maccagnano, G., Pesce, V., Di Pierro, S., Tafuri, S., Moretti B. (2014). "Effect of teaching with or without mirror on balance in young female ballet students". BMC research notes.;7(1):426.
  25. Ogwumike, O., Tijani, A. (2011). "Balance Performance of Professional Footballers with Long-term Lower Limb Musculoskeletal Injury". African Journal of Physiotherapy and Rehabilitation Sciences. 3(1):23-7.
  26. Park, T-J. (2014). "The Effects of Wobble Board Training on the Eyes Open and Closed Static Balance Ability of Adolescents with Down Syndrome". Journal of physical therapy science. 26(4):625.
  27. Rougier, P., editor [How mirror feedback improves undisturbed upright stance control]. (2002). "Annales de readaptation et de medecine physique: revue scientifique de la Societe francaise de reeducation fonctionnelle de readaptation et de medecine physique".
  28. Sackley, CM., Lincoln, NB. (1997). "Single blind randomized controlled trial of visual feedback after stroke: effects on stance symmetry and function". Disability & Rehabilitation. 19(12):536-46.
  29. Schmidt, RA., Wulf, G. (1997). "Continuous concurrent feedback degrades skill learning: Implications for training and simulation". Human Factors.39(4):509-25.
  30. Sigrist, R., Rauter, G., Riener, R., Wolf, P. (2013). "Augmented visual, auditory, haptic, and multimodal feedback in motor learning: A review". Psychonomic bulletin & review.;20(1):21-53.
  31. Stevens, JA., Stoykov, MEP. (2004). "Simulation of bilateral movement training through mirror reflection: a case report demonstrating an occupational therapy technique for hemiparesis". Topics in stroke rehabilitation.11(1):59-66..
  32. Sullivan, KJ., Kantak, SS., Burtner, PA. ( 2008). "Motor learning in children: feedback effects on skill acquisition". Physical therapy.88(6):720-32.
  33. Vaillant, J., Vuillerme, N., Janvy, A., Louis, F., Juvin, R., Nougier, V. (2004). "Mirror versus stationary cross feedback in controlling the center of footpressure displacement in quiet standing in elderly subjects". Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation. 85(12):1962-5.
  34. Venetsanou, F., Kambas, A. (2011). "The effects of age and gender on balance skills in preschool children. Facta universitatis-series" Physical Education and Sport. 9(1):81-90.
  35. Walker, C., Brouwer, BJ., Culham, EG. (2000). "Use of visual feedback in retraining balance following acute stroke". Physical therapy. 80(9):886-95.