Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license



The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of different methods of self-talk (motivational, instructional, and combined) on acquisition and learning of a motor perceptional task (dart) and physical efficacy in female students aged between 13 and 18. 48 female students (mean age 15.46 yr) who were novice at dart throwing voluntarily participated in this study. Participants were divided into 4 groups including motivational self-talk, instructional self-talk, motivational-instructional self-talk and physical practice (12 students in each group) following an initial instructional session and pretest. The intervention included 10 sessions of acquisition, 2 sessions of retention test and one session of transfer test. One-way ANOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures were used to analyze data. Results showed that combined (motivational-instructional) and the instructional self-talk groups improved dart throwing performance in acquisition, immediate and delayed retention sessions in 13-18-year-old students compared with the motivational self-talk and physical exercise groups. Instructional self-talk group showed the best performance in transfer test while the other three groups showed almost similar performances. The results also showed that different interventions had no significant effects on physical self-efficacy of the participants.


1. احسانی نوری، شیدا (1387). "تأثیر بازخورد خودکنترل و آزمونگر کنترل با استفاده از بازخورد نوار ویدئویی بر اکتساب، یادداری و انتقال یک مهارت حرکتی"، پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی‌ارشد، دانشکدۀ تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، ص 65-24.     
2. طهماسیان، کارینه (1384). "مدل ‌ابی خودکارآمدی در افسردگی نوجوانان بر مبنای مدل عاملیتی بندورا از افسردگی"، پایان‌نامۀ دکتری روان‌شناسی بالینی، تهران، دانشگاه علوم بهزیستی و توانبخشی، دانشکدۀ روان‌شناسی، ص 77-67.
3. Abood. S. A. Davids. K. Bennet. J.S. Ashford. D and Marin. M. (2001). "Effects of manipulating relative and absolute motion information during observational learning of an aiming task". Journal of sport science, 19, 507-520.
4. Anderson, A. (1997). "Learning strategies in physical education: Selftalk, imagery, and goal-setting" . Journal of Physical Education Recreation & Dance, 68, 30-35.
5. Bandura, A. (1997). "Self-efficacy: the exercise of control". New York: Freeman. PP: 210-240.
6. Barwood, M. J., Corbett, J., Wagstaff, C., Mcveigh, D., & Thelwell, R. C. (2014). "Motivational self-talk improves 10km time trial cycling compared to neutral self-talk". International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 10(2), 166-171
7. Behncke, L. (2004). "Mental skills training for sports: A brief review". J Sport Psychol, 6(1), 230-260.
8. Boroujeni, S. T., & Shahbazi, M. (2011). "The Effect of Instructional and Motivational Self-Talk on Performance of Basketball's Motor Skill". Procedia of Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 3113-3117.
9. Bunker, L., Williams, J. M. & Zinsser, N. (1993). "Cognitive techniques for improving performance and building confidence". In J. M. Williams (Ed), Applied Sport Psychology: "personal growth to peak performance" 2nd Ed. Mountain view, CA: Mayfield. PP: 225-242.
10.Chang, Y. K., Ho, L. A., Lu, F. J. H., Ou, C. C., Song, T. F., & Gill, D. L. (2014). "Self-talk and softball performance: The role of self-talk nature, motor task characteristics, and self-efficacy in novice softball players". Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(1),139-145.
11. Cumming, J., Nordin, S. M., Horton, R., & Reynolds, S. (2006). "Examining the Direction of Imagery and Self-Talk on Dart Throwing Performance and Self-efficacy", The Sport Psychologist, 20, 257-274.
12. Ehrenberg, M. F., Cox, D. N., & Koopman, R. F. (1991). "The Self-efficacy and Depression in Adolescents". Adolescence, 26, 361-374.
13. Fin, J.A. (1985) ."Competitive excellence: It’s a matter of mind and body". The physician and sports medicine, 12, 1-15.
14. Hackfort, D., & Schwenkmezger, P. (1993). Anxiety In R.N. Singer, M. Murphey, & L.K. Tennant, (Eds.). "Handbook of research on sport psychology". New York: Macmillan. PP: 328–364.
15. Hardy J. (2006). "Speaking clearly: a critical review of the self-talk literature". Psychol Sport Exerc; 7: 81-97.
16. Hardy, J., Begley, K., & Blanchfield, A. W. (2015). It's Good But it's Not Right: Instructional Self-Talk and Skilled Performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 27(2), 132-139.
17. Hardy, L. Jones, G. & Gould, D. (1996). "Understanding psychological preparation for sport: Theory and practice". Chichester, England: Wiley. PP: 320-342.
18. Hatzigeorgiadis, A., Galanis, E., Zourbanos, N., & Theodorakis, Y. (2014). "Self-talk and competitive sport performance". Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 26(1), 82-95.
19. Hatzigeorgiadis, A. Theodorakis, Y. & Zourbanos, N. (2004). "Self-talk in the Swimming Pool: The Effects of Self-talk on Thought Content and Performance on Water-polo Tasks". Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 16: 138.50.
20. Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM. (2000). "Principles of neural science". 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill Publishers. PP: 350-366.
21. Kolovelonis, A., Goudas, M., & Dermitzaki, I. (2011). "The effects of in Instructional and Motivational Self-Talk on Students' Motor Task Performance Physical Education". Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12(2), 153-158.
22. Landin, D. (1994). "The role of verbal cues in skill learning". Quest, 46, 299-313.
23. Magill, R., A. (2007). "Motor Learning and Control: Concepts and Applications". 6th edition, Mc Graw-Hill Publisher. PP: 118-200.
24. Perkos, S., Theodorakis, Y., & Chroni, S. (2002). "Enhancing performance and skill acquisition in novice basketball players with instructional self-talk". The Sport Psychol, 16, 368-383.
25. Ryekman, R. M., Robbins, M. A., Thornton, B., & Cantrell, P. (1982). "Development and validation of physical self-efficacy scale". Journal of personality and social psychology, 42, 891-900.
26. Suinn, R.M. (1977). "Behavioral methods at the winter Olympic games". Behavior Therapy, 8, 283-284
27. Taylor, R. E. (2014). "The Relationship Between Self-talk and the Experience of Flow in Endurance Athletes" (Doctoral dissertation, Middle Tennessee State University). PP: 45-57.
28. Theodorakis, Y. Weinberg, R. Natsis, P. Douma, I. & Kazakas, P. (2000). "The Effects of Motivational Versus Instructional Self-talk on Improving Motor Performance". The Sport Psychologist, 14: 253 72.
29. Weinberg, R., Grove, R., & Jackson, A. (1992). "Strategies for building self-efficacy in tennis players: A comparative analysis of Australian and American coaches". The Sport Psychologist, 6, 3–13.
30. Zetou, E., Nikolaos, V., & Evaggelos, B. (2014). "The effect of instructional self-talk on performance and learning the backstroke of young swimmers and on the perceived functions of it". Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 14(1), 27.
31. Zinnser, N., Bunker, L., & Williams, J. M. (2006). "Cognitive techniques for building confidence and enhancing performance". In J. M. Williams (Ed.), Applied sport psychology: "Personal growth to peak performance" (5th ed.) New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc, Higher Education. PP: 349–381.