Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license



Pressure refers to the feelings an athlete has about performing in a competitive situation. The primary aim of this study was to examine kinematic changes of tennis serves in increasing competitive pressure. 20 semi-professional right-handed male tennis players completed 120 serves under low (normal) and high competitive pressure phases. Pressure checks (heart rate and perceived competitive state anxiety) were administered before serves in the low and the high-pressure phases. Performance and kinematic parameters of the serves (two-dimensional motion analysis) were also measured. The pressure manipulation showed a significant increase in the heart rate and perceived pressure from the low pressure to the high pressure (P<0.001). Decreased performance showed that the choking effect under pressure was observed (P<0.001). Results showed that the height of serves significantly decreased under pressure (P<0.001), while the ball speed remained unchanged (P>0.05). This study explained performance changes under competitive pressure using kinematic factors.

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