Document Type : Research Paper
This study aimed at examining the effect of different focus of attention instructions and cognitive styles on the learning of dart throwing skill. 80 children were randomly selected and divided into four equal groups: a) field independent-external attention, b) field independent-internal attention, c) field dependent-external attention and d) field independent-internal attention based on their pretest scores (10 trials of dart throwing). Then, in acquisition phase, they practiced 6 blocks of 10 trials of dart throwing task with regard to their focus of attention and cognitive style. Retention test was conducted 24 hours after the acquisition phase similar to pretest. After ensuring data normality by Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, ANOVA 4*6 with repeated measures was conducted on block factor and one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni post hoc test was applied in acquisition and retention phases respectively. Results showed significant differences in scores of all groups in all phases (P<0.05) and those with field independent style had better performance in external focus of attention than internal focus of attention and those with field dependent style had better performance in internal focus of attention than external focus of attention. In other words, cognitive styles must be noted during recruiting the focuses of attention.