The Effect of Neurofeedback Training on Sleep Quality and Psychological Skills of Athletes with Psychophysiological Approach

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor of Imam Khomeini International University

2 MSc of Motor Behavior, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neurofeedback training on sleep quality and psychological skills of athletes with psychophysiological approach. The research method was semi-experimental and application with pretest and posttest design and a control group. 31 athletes who were members of a sport team gained the criteria to enter the study. They were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups and the experimental group received neurofeedback treatment. The neurofeedback training lasted 3 sessions a week, 45 min. each session for 2 months. This protocol was performed in a bipolar manner at C4-CZ points. Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) was used to extract sleep quality profile and OMSAT-3 and Elisa method were used to assess psychophysiological stress of participants. Covariance analysis and dependent t test were used to analyze the data. The results suggested that neurofeedback training can influence to balance stress and to improve sleep quality of athletes which greatly affects their performance.


  1. بصیری، نوشین؛ نامداری، کوروش؛ عابدی، احمد (1394). «تأثیر نوروفیدبک در بهبود کیفیت خواب بیماران مبتلا به اختلال بی‌خوابی»، مجلۀ علمی دانشگاه علوم پزشکی ایلام، دورۀ 23، ش 4، ص 304-294.
  2. حیدری، علیرضا؛ احتشام‌زاده، پروین؛ مرعشی، ماندانا (1389). «رابطۀ شدت بی‌خوابی، کیفیت خواب، خواب آلودگی و اختلال در سلامت روان با عملکرد تحصیلی در دختران»، زن و فرهنگ، دورۀ 1، ش 4، ص 76-65.
  3. صنعتی منفرد، شمسی (1385). اعتباریابی پرسشنامۀ 3OMSAT-  و بررسی تأثیر برنامۀ آمادگی روانی بر سطح مهارت‌های ذهنی منتخبی از ورزشکاران شرکت‌کننده در بازهای آسیایی دوحه 2006، طرح پژوهشی مرکز روان‌شناسی آکادمی ملی المپیک.
  4. American Academy of Sleep Medicine. The international classification of sleep disorders: diagnostic and coding manual. American Acad. of Sleep Medicine; 2005.
  5. AP Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders. American psychiatric association, Washington, DC. 1994;4.
  6. Barker,A.R.,andArmstrong,N.Exercise testing elite young athletes.Med.J SportSci 2011; 56:106–125.
  7. Buysse , DJ.,Reynoda , CF.,Bermin , SR.,& Kupfer , DJ. The pittsburgh sleep Quality Index . A new instrument for psychiatric practic practice and research psychiatry Res ,J Psychiatry Research 1989; 28(2):193-213.
  8. Buysse DJ, Thompson W, Scott J, Franzen PL, Germain A, Hall M, et al. Daytime symptoms in primary insomnia: a prospective analysis using ecological momentary assessment. J Sleep Med 2007; 8(3): 198-208.
  9. Cortoos A,Valk E,Arns M, Marinus H, Breteler M, Cluydts R. An exploratory study on the effects of Tele-neurofeedback and Tele-biofeedback on objective and subjective sleep in patients with primary insomnia. J Appl psychophysiol Biofeedback 2010; 35(2): 125-134.
  10. Cortoos A, Verstraeten E. Cluydts R. Neurophysiological aspects of primary insomnia: Implications for its treatment.J Sleep Med Rev2006;10(4):255-66.
  11. Hammer A, Barbara U, Colbert P, Kimberly A. Neurofeedback for insomnia a pilot study of z –score SMR and individualized protocols. Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback. 2011; 36(4):251-64.
  12. Hammond D. Cowpat is neurofeedback? J Neurotherapy 2006; 10:25-36.
  13. John H. Gruzelier. EEG-neurofeedback for optimizing performance. I: A review of cognitive and affective outcome in healthy participants. J Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews2014; 44: 124–141.
  14. Khanjari Y, Arab Ameri E, Garooei R, Motashareei E, Hemayattalab R. The Effect of a Course of Psychological Skills Training (PST) Program on Selected Mental Skills and the Performance of Teenager Female Taekwondo Athletes of Iranian National Team. Journal of Research in Sport Management & Motor Behavior 2013; 3 (5) :25-34. (Persian)
  15. Mah CD; Mah KE; Kezirian EJ; Dement WC. The effects of sleep extension on the athletic performance of collegiate basketball players.J SLEEP 2011;34(7):943-950.
  16. Mahdizadeh S, Salari MM, Ebadi A, Naderi Z, Aazeh A.[ Relationship between sleep quality and quality of life in chemical warfar victims with bronchiolitis obliterans referred to Baqiyatallah hospital of Tehran IRAN]. Journal ofPayesh 2011;10(2):265-271.(Persian).
  17. Malek M, Halvani G.H, Fallah M, Jafari-Nodoushan R. [A Study of the relationship between the pittsburgh sleep quality index and road accidents among truck drivers]. Journal ofOccupational Medicine 2011;3(1):14-20. (Persian).
  18. Mardani M, Shahraki A, Moshtagh Z. Assessment of the relationship between mental health and job stress among nurses. Journal of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences 2010;8(2):34-40.(Persian).
  19. Milewski,M.D.,Skaggs,D.L.,Bishop, G.A. Pace,J.L., Ibrahim, D.A., Wren,T.A.,etal.Chronic lack of sleep is associated with increased sports injuries in adolescent athletes. J.Pediatr.Orthop 2014; 34(2):129–133.
  20. Milner CE, Belicki K. Assessment and Treatment of Insomnia in Adults: A Guide for Clinicians. J Couns Dev 2010;88(2):236–45.
  21. Mousavi, F., Tavabi, A., Iran-Pour, E., Tabatabaei, R., & Golestan, B. Prevalence and Associated Factors of Insomnia Syndrome in the Elderly Residing in Kahrizak Nursing Home, Tehran, Iran. Iranian Journal of Public Health2012; 41(1):96–106.(Persian).
    1. Naienian MR, Babapoor J, Shaiery M, Rostami R. The effect of neurofeedback instruction on decline of generalized anxiety disorder and patients life quality. Journal of Psychol 2009;4:176-202.(Persian).
  22. Nedelec, M., Halson,S., Abaidia, A., Ahmaidi, S., and Dupont,G. Stress, sleep and recovery in elite soccer: a critical review of the literature. J Sports Med 2015; 45(10): 1387–1400.
  23. Perlis ML1, Zee J, Swinkels C, Kloss J, Morgan K, David B, Morales K. The incidence and temporal patterning of insomnia: a second study. J Sleep Res. 2014;23(5):499-507.
  24. Thomée, S., Härenstam, A., & Hagberg, M. Mobile phone use and stress, sleep disturbances, and symptoms of depression among young adults - a prospective cohort study.J BMC Public Health 2011; 11(1):1.


Volume 9, Issue 2 - Serial Number 2
August 2017
Pages 239-251
  • Receive Date: 01 February 2017
  • Revise Date: 16 May 2017
  • Accept Date: 23 April 2017
  • First Publish Date: 23 August 2017