Document Type : Research Paper
PhD Student of Motor Learning and Control, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Associate Professor, Department of Motor Learning and Control, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Learning and Control, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Assistant Professor, Department of Sport Medicine, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran
Meta-stability is a relatively stable region in which system components tend to cooperate to reach performance goals of movement while maintaining their separate and flexible characters. Participants were assigned to 3 skill groups: coordination (n=10), coordination control (n=10), and optimized control (n=10). Each two fencers fought in each group. Results of cluster analysis and empirical density indicated the emergence of a metastable region in coordination control group (between 1.689276- 2.270372), two metastable regions in optimized control group (between 0.9824658- 1.00113699 and 1.843131-2.333738) and no metastable region in coordination group. Moreover, the binomial test showed that the proportion of using modes of actions in metastable regions in coordination control and optimized control groups had no significant difference (P=0.4888). But the extent of metastable region in the coordination control group was significantly greater. Findings of this study showed that fencers' motor system is metastable depending on their skill level and the extent of metastable regions was different in each level. To design learning and organizing practice, sport coaches can lead the athletes to metastable regions to emerge the most functional motor responses.
- Araújo, D., Davids, K., Bennett, S. J., Button, C., & Chapman, G. (2004). 19 Emergence of sport skills under constraints. Skill acquisition in sport: Research, theory and practice, 409.
- Araujo, D., Davids, K., & Hristovski, R. (2006). The ecological dynamics of decision making in sport. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 7(6), 653-676.
- Bartlett, R., Wheat, J., & Robins, M. (2007). Is movement variability important for sports biomechanists? Sports biomechanics, 6(2), 224-243.
- Carson, R. G., & Kelso, J. S. (2004). Governing coordination: behavioural principles and neural correlates. Experimental Brain Research, 154(3), 267-274.
- Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Button, C., Shuttleworth, R., Renshaw, I., & Araújo, D. (2007). The role of nonlinear pedagogy in physical education. Review of Educational Research, 77(3), 251-278.
- Chow, J. Y., Davids, K., Hristovski, R., Araújo, D., & Passos, P. (2011). Nonlinear pedagogy: Learning design for self-organizing neurobiological systems. New Ideas in Psychology, 29(2), 189-200.
- Czajkowski, Z. (2010). Modern Saber Fencing by Zbigniew Borysiuk published by SKA SwordPlay Books, NYC, Staten Island. Journal of Human Kinetics, 25, 133-136.
- Davids, K., Bennett, S., & Newell, K. M. (2006). Movement system variability: Human kinetics.
- Davids, K., Renshaw, I., & Glazier, P. (2005). Movement models from sports reveal fundamental insights into coordination processes. Exercise and sport sciences reviews, 33(1), 36-42.
- Davids, K., Williams, A., Button, C., Court, M., Singer, R., Hausenblas, H., & Janelle, C. (2001). An integrative modeling approach to the study of intentional movement behavior. Handbook of sport psychology, 2, 144-173.
- Edelman, G. M., & Gally, J. A. (2001). Degeneracy and complexity in biological systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(24), 13763-13768.
- Fingelkurts, A. A., & Fingelkurts, A. A. (2004). Making complexity simpler: multivariability and metastability in the brain. International Journal of Neuroscience, 114(7), 843-862.
- Gibson, J. J. 1979. The ecological approach to visual perception.
- Hristovski, R., Davids, K., Araújo, D., & Button, C. (2006). How boxers decide to punch a target: emergent behaviour in nonlinear dynamical movement systems. Journal of sports science & medicine, 5(CSSI), 60.
- Hristovski, R., Davids, K., Araujo, D., & Passos, P. (2011). Constraints-induced emergence of functional novelty in complex neurobiological systems: a basis for creativity in sport. Nonlinear Dynamics-Psychology and Life Sciences, 15.
- Hristovski, R., Davids, K. W., & Araujo, D. (2009). Information for regulating action in sport: metastability and emergence of tactical solutions under ecological constraints. Perspectives on cognition and action in sport, 43-57.
- Jirsa, V. K., & Kelso, J. S. (2004). Integration and segregation of perceptual and motor behavior Coordination dynamics: issues and trends (pp. 243-259): Springer.
- Jirsa, V. K., & Kelso, S. (2013). Coordination dynamics: Issues and trends: Springer.
- Kelso, J. S. (2002). The complementary nature of coordination dynamics: Self-organization and agency. NONLINEAR PHENOMENA IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS-MINSK-, 5(4), 364-371.
- Kelso, J. S. (2012). Multistability and metastability: understanding dynamic coordination in the brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1591), 906-918.
- Marsili, M., Challet, D., & Zecchina, R. (2000). Exact solution of a modified El Farol's bar problem: Efficiency and the role of market impact. Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, 280(3), 522-553.
- Newell, K. (1985). Coordination, control and skill. Advances in Psychology, 27, 295-317.
- Pinder, R. A., Davids, K., & Renshaw, I. (2012). Metastability and emergent performance of dynamic interceptive actions. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 15(5), 437-443.
- Reader, S. M., & Laland, K. N. (2003). Animal innovation (Vol. 10): Oxford University Press Oxford.
- Savelsbergh, G., & Van der Kamp, J. (2000). Information in learning to go-ordinate and control movements: Is there a need for specificity of practice? International Journal of Sport Psychology, 31(4), 467-484.
- Scott Kelso, J. (1995). Dynamic patterns: the self-organization of brain and behavior: Complex Adaptive Systems series. MIT Press, Bradford Book, Cambridge, MA.
- Seifert, L., Button, C., & Davids, K. (2013). Key properties of expert movement systems in sport. Sports Medicine, 43(3), 167-178.
- Warren, W. H. (2006). The dynamics of perception and action. Psychological review, 113(2), 358.
- Zegers, D., Beckers, S., Hendrickx, R., Van Camp, J., de Craemer, V., Verrijken, A., . . . Desager, K. (2014). Mutation screen of the SIM1 gene in pediatric patients with early-onset obesity. International Journal of Obesity, 38(7), 1000-1004.