Document Type : Research Paper


1 M., Ph.D. Student, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

2 Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Alzahra University, Tehran, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Science, Kharazmi University, Tehran, Iran


Aim: This study aimed to determine effect of self-control of task difficulty on accurate and movement pattern golf putting.
Methodology: Thirty novice undergraduate students (14 Female and 16 male; average age 21.1 ± 1.64 years) were quasi-randomly assigned to two groups. Before performing each trial during the acquisition phase, the self-control group was told they could choose any of the pre-set distances from the target: (25, 50, 75, 100, 125, 150, 175 and, 200 cm). Each self-control participant’s practice schedule was served as the predetermined practice schedule for each corresponding yoked participant. Participants practiced eight blocks of 10 trials. To analyze the radial error (in acquisition and tests phases) and the movement pattern score (in tests) mixed variance analysis with repeated measures on the last factor was used. The movement pattern score in acquisition phase was analyzed using t test.
Results: Based on the results, radial errors across different groups in the acquisition phase did not vary, but the radial error of the self-control group in retention, single task transfer and dual-task transfer tests was lower compared to the yoked group (ps < 0.001). In acquisition and test phases, the golf putting movement pattern was better than that of yoked group (ps < 0.001).
Conclusion: The efficacy of self-control of task difficulty is explained with reference to the challenge point framework.


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