Comparison of the effects of exercise intensity on learning, spatial memory and anxiety behaviors in rats with motion impairment

Document Type : Research Paper


1 . PhD Student, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


The role of the training is to improve the symptoms of Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exercise intensity on learning, spatial memory and anxiety behaviors in rat with impair . In this study, 24 male rats were randomly divided into 5 healthy control groups, Parkinson's control, Parkinson's (low, moderate, and high intensity) exercises. The creation of the Parkinson's Model was injected intra-brain-6-hydroxydopamine. To assess learning and spatial memory, Morris water maze test and Counting Counting were used as an indicator of anxiety behavior. Data analysis was done by one-way ANOVA at a significant level (P <0.05). Injection of 6-hydroxydopamine increased the duration of the platform and destroyed spatial memory (P <0.05), Although all three types of space memory training decreased significantly in Parkinson's rats significantly (P <0.05), high intensity exercise showed the greatest effect on learning and spatial memory (0.05). (P <0.05), there was a significant difference between the high and low intensity training groups (P <0.05). This difference was not significant between the moderate and low intensity groups in most of the variables (P <0.05). Different intensities, especially high intensity, improve the parameters of spatial memory



1. Scholtissen B., Verhey F.R.J. Steinbusch H.W.M., Leentjens A.F.G. Serotonergic mechanisms in Parkinson`s Disease: opposing results from preclinical and clinical data, Journal of Neural Transmission, 2006, 113: 59-73.
2. Su XL, Luo XG, Lv H, Wang J, Ren Y, He ZY. Factors predicting the instant effect of motor function after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation in Parkinson’s disease. Translational neurodegeneration. 2017, 26;6(1):14.
3. Rafie F, Shabazi M, Sheikh M, Naghdi N, Sheibani V. Effects of Voluntary Exercise on Motor Function in Parkinson's disease Model of Rats. Annals of Applied Sport Science. 2017 , 15;5(2):81-6.
4 Sheibani V, Rafie F, Shahbazi M, Naghdi N, Sheikh M. Comparison of voluntary and forced exercise effects on motor behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine-lesion rat model of Parkinson’s disease. Sport Sciences for Health. 2017, 1;13(1):203-11.
5. Pires J.G., Bonikovski V., Futuro-Neto H.A. Acute effects of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors on neuroleptic-induced catalepsy in mice, Braz. Med. Biol. Res., 2005, 38: 1867-1872.
6. Rafferty MR, Schmidt PN, Luo ST, Li K, Marras C, Davis TL, Guttman M, Cubillos F, Simuni T. Regular exercise, quality of life, and mobility in Parkinson’s disease: a longitudinal analysis of national parkinson foundation quality improvement initiative data. Journal of Parkinson's disease. 2017, 1;7(1):193-202.
7. Taura J, Valle‐León M, Sahlholm K, Watanabe M, Van Craenenbroeck K, Fernández‐Dueñas V, Ferré S, Ciruela F. Behavioral control by striatal adenosine A2A‐dopamine D2 receptor heteromers. Genes, Brain and Behavior. 2017 , 20.
 8. Matsubara K., Shimizu K., Suno M., Ogawa K., Awaya T., Yamada T., Noda T., Satomi M., Ohtaki K., Chiba K., Tasaki Y., Shiono H. Tandospirone, a 5-HT1A agonist, ameliorates movement disorder via non-dopaminergic systems in rats with unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine-generated lesions. Brain Res., 2006, 1112: 126-133.
9. Bang J, Sharon JS, Possin KL. Parkinson’s Disease, Parkinson’s Disease with Dementia, and Dementia with Lewy Bodies. The Human Frontal Lobes: Functions and Disorders. 2017 Nov 16:380.
10. Riad M., Garcia S., Watkins K.C., Jodoin N., Doucet E., Langlois X., el Mestikawy S., Hamon M., Descarries L. Somatodendritic localization of 5-HT1A and preterminal axonal localization of 5- HT1B serotonin receptors in adult rat brain, J. Comp. Neurol., 2000, 417: 181–194.
11. Titova N, Schapira AH, Chaudhuri KR, Qamar MA, Katunina E, Jenner P. Nonmotor Symptoms in Experimental Models of Parkinson's Disease. InInternational review of neurobiology 2017 Jan 1 (Vol. 133, pp. 63-89). Academic Press.
12. Hou L, Chen W, Liu X, Qiao D, Zhou FM. Exercise-Induced Neuroprotection of the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System in Parkinson's Disease. Frontiers in aging neuroscience. 2017 Nov 3;9:358.
13. Nayebi M.A., Reyhani- Rad S., Saberian M., Azimzadeh S., Samini M. Buspirone improves 6- hydroxydopamine-induced catalepsy through stimulation of nigral 5-HT1A receptors in rat. Pharmacological Reports, 2010, 62(2): (In press).
14. Nasuti C, Brunori G, Eusepi P, Marinelli L, Ciccocioppo R, Gabbianelli R. Early life exposure to permethrin: a progressive animal model of Parkinson's disease. Journal of pharmacological and toxicological methods. 2017 Feb 28;83:80-6.
 15. Nayebi A.M., Nazemiyeh H., Omidbakhsh R., Çobanoglu S. Analgesic effect of the methanol extract of Erica arborea (L.) in mice using formalin test. Daru, 2008, 16: 229-232.
16. Wang S., Hu L.F., Yang Y., Ding J.H., HU G. Studies of ATP-seneitive potassium channels on 6- hydroxydopamine and haloperidol rat models of Parkinson's disease: Implications for treating Parkinson's disease? Neuropharmacology, 2005, 48: 984-992.
17. Aguiar, A.S., et al., Physical exercise improves motor and short-term social memory deficits in reserpinized rats. Brain research bulletin, 2009. 79(6): p. 452-457.
18. Huang Y, Cheung L, Rowe D, Halliday G. Genetic contributions to Parkinson's disease. Brain research reviews. 2004;46(1):44-70.
19. Soya, H., T. Nakamura, et al. (2007). "BDNF induction with mild exercise in the rat hippocampus." Biochemical and biophysical research communications 358(4): 961-967.
20. Shabani M, Larizadeh MH, Parsania S, Asadi Shekaari M, Shahrokhi N. Profound destructive effects of adolescent exposure to vincristine accompanied with some sex differences in motor and memory performance. Canadian journal of physiology and pharmacology. 2012;90(4):379-86.
21. Razavinasab M, Shamsizadeh A, Shabani M, Nazeri M, Allahtavakoli M, Asadi-Shekaari M, et al. Pharmacological blockade of TRPV1 receptors modulates the effects of 6-OHDA on motor and cognitive functions in a rat model of Parkinson's disease. Fundamental & Clinical Pharmacology. 2013;27(6):632-40.
22. Vučcković, M. G., Q. Li, et al. (2010). "Exercise elevates dopamine D2 receptor in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease: in vivo imaging with [18F] fallypride." Movement Disorders 25(16): 2777-2784.
23. Ridgel, A. L., Vitek, J. L., & Alberts, J. L. (2009). Forced, not voluntary, exercise improves motor function in Parkinson's disease patients. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair, 23(6), 600-608.
24.Baatile, J., W. Langbein, F. Weaver, C. Maloney, and M. Jost, Effect of exercise on perceived quality of life of individuals with Parkinson's disease. Journal of rehabilitation research and development, 2000. 37(5): p. 529.
25. 25. Ravasi AA, Pournemati P, KordiM R, Hedayati M. The Effects of Resistance and Endurance Training on BDNF and Cortisol Levels in Young Male Rats. Sport Biosci 2013; 16: 49-78.
26.Ashrafi S, Fallah Mohammadi Z. The acute effects of three different intensities of treadmill running on cerebral dopamine neurotrophic factor in male Wistar rats. Journal of Practical Studies of Biosciences in Sport, vol. 2, no. 3, Spring & Summer, 2014. 19-28.
Volume 9, Issue 4
March 2018
Pages 667-682
  • Receive Date: 01 December 2017
  • Revise Date: 23 April 2018
  • Accept Date: 25 April 2018
  • First Publish Date: 25 April 2018