The Effect of Visual Illusion on the Learning of a Targeting Motor Skill in Children

Document Type : Research Paper


1 . PhD Student of Motor Learning, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.


The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of visual illusion on the learning of a targeting motor skill in children. The research method was semi-experimental with repeated measurement design and retention test. The statistical sample consisted of 36 children (10 years old) who were selected by convenience sampling method. They were divided into 3 groups: larger circle perception, smaller circle perception and control after the goal size had been estimated. The Ebbinghaus illusion displayed on the ground and the tennis ball to throw from top of the shoulder towards goal were used in this study. Firstly, the participants performed 10 trials at the pretest stage. Then, they performed six 10-trial blocks in the acquisition phase. 48 hours after the last acquisition session, a retention test was performed in 10 trials. To analyze the data, mixed analysis of variance with repeated measures, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc test were used. The results showed a significant difference among the groups both in the acquisition and retention phases and this difference was in favor of the smaller circle perception group. In general, the results of this study indicated the beneficial effect of visual illusion on learning a sport skill. Therefore, coaches and sport authorities are suggested to use this variable to improve performances and training sessions


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Volume 10, Issue 4
February 2019
Pages 519-536
  • Receive Date: 01 August 2018
  • Revise Date: 08 December 2018
  • Accept Date: 11 November 2018
  • First Publish Date: 21 January 2019