Document Type : Research Paper


1 . Ph.D. Student, Department of Motor Learning and Control, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University, Mashhad, Iran

2 . Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior and Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior and Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Theoretically, skill presentation will change behavior through processes such as imitation and motor repetition. If we want learning to happen, we need a process called training. Training can be delivered by the instructor through verbal and non–verbal instructions to the learner. One type of non–verbal instruction is pattern representation in which learner can learn through observation. The purpose of this model is to use the pattern representation as a means of transmitting information. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three training methods: immediate, interspersed and combined imitation on Juno kata form performance. Therefore, 45 girls (9-12 years old) in Tehran city voluntarily participated in this study and were divided into three groups (each group 15 subjects) based on the type of intervention. Groups of immediate, interspersed and combined imitation had special imitation training programs with specific repetitions. In order to quantify data, 10-point Kata scale was used. As the data distribution and variance homogeneity were obtained, the result of analysis of variance with repeated measures showed that all three observational methods helped to improve the performance and this progress remained stable in the retention and transfer tests (P≤0.05). Also, the results of multivariate analysis of variance showed the priority of immediate imitation group on interspersed (P=0.0005) and combined (P=0.0005) imitation groups. The combined imitation group gained better scores than interspersed group (P=0.0005) and this differences was stable in retention and transfer tests.


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