Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 PhD Student of Motor Learning, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

3 Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran

4 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Bu-Ali Sina , Hamedan, Iran


The aim of this study was to investigate the role of the errorless, errorful and random practice schedules on the acquisition and learning of relative timing in a motor task. 51 male students (age: 22±4 years old) were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (control, errorful, errorless, and random). This study was carried out in five phases: pretest (PRT), acquisition (ACQ), 10-min retention and transfer and 24-hour retention and transfer. In the acquisition phase, a timing task with three different difficulty levels (simple, moderate, and difficult) was practiced in three sessions of 45 trials with feedback by experimental groups. In order to analyze the data, a mixed-design analysis of variance model with repeated measures on each variable was used in the acquisition and retention phases. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used in the other phases. The findings of relative timing showed no significant differences among the groups in the pretest (P˃0.05). Additionally, in retention and transfer tests, errorless group had better performance than errorful, random and control groups (P≤0.05). Errorless group performed better than the random and errorful groups in 24-hour transfer test of the secondary task (P≤0.05). These results showed that practice in errorless conditions leads to a better learning of the task and its generalization to new conditions that are consistent with the implicit learning and reinvestment theories


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