Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD of Motor Behavior, Lecturer of Faculty of Sport Sciences, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Mazandaran University, Babolsar, Iran

3 MSc of Sport Psychology, Adib Mazandaran Nonprofit Institute, Sari, Iran


One of the topics of interest to motor behavior researchers is to examine the different effects of attention strategies on motor behavior and brain activity.The aim of this study was to investigate the role of attention instructions on alpha and theta wave variations and the accuracy of dart throwing. 20 male students novice in dart (age range 19-22 years old) were voluntarily selected. This study was application. Firstly, the participants performed 10 attempts of dart throwing in the baseline (no attention instructions). Then, as a counterbalance, 20 practice attempts were performed in both the external and internal attention strategies. In all attempts, the alpha and theta brain waves of the subjects were recorded using biofeedback device and the radial error formula was used to measure accuracy. The data were analyzed by in-group variance analysis with repeated measures and Bonferroni post hoc test at a significance level of 0.05. The results showed that the external attention strategy increased the accuracy of the dart throwing (P=0.0001), increased alpha wavelength (P=0.01) and reduced theta wave (P=0.01) in comparison with the internal attention strategy. These findings showed the need to use attention instructions particularly external attention in targeting skill task at a beginner level; therefore, it is suggested that coaches should use external attention strategy to improve the accuracy and intelligence of the brain in beginners.


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