Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 MSc of Sport Psychology, Faculty of Sport Psychology, Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj, Iran

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Sport Psychology, Islamic Azad University of Karaj, Karaj, Iran

3 Assistant professor at Azad Karaj University, physical education department. Azad Karaj University, Alborz, Iran


Psychological skill is one of the most important factors that influence athlete’s performance so the aim of this study was to examine effectiveness of Psychological skills training on Quantitative and qualitative performance of adolescence. The statistical population included adolescence swimmers of karaj swimming clubs in karaj city. 30 adolescence swimmers were selected among karaj swimming clubs using available sampling method, and were randomly assigned into the experimental and control groups. A semi experimental with pre-test and post-test assessments was used. Beside physical training, experimental group received 22 sessions Psychological skills through 3 sessions weekly that every sessions took one hour but control group didn’t received any intervention, all the participants assessed by Stopwatch and Checklist for 50-m front crawl techniques (free-running) in two steps of pre-test and post-test. Data were analyzed by combinatory variance analysis model. Findings revealed that the Psychological skills training significantly improved Quantitative performance in the experimental group (P


1.Hanin YL. Emotions in sport: Human Kinetics; 2000.
2. Olbrecht J. The science of winning: planning, periodizing and optimizing swim training: F&G Partners; 2015.
3. Thiese KE, Huddleston S. The use of psychological skills by female collegiate swimmers. Journal of sport behavior. 1999;22(4):602-10.
4. Wang L, Huddleston S, Lu P. Psychological skill use by Chinese swimmers. International Sports Journal. 2003;7(1):48-62.
5. Sheard M, Golby J. Effect of a psychological skills training program on swimming performance and positive psychological development. International journal of sport and exercise psychology. 2006;4(2):149-69.
6. Ong NC, Griva K. The effect of mental skills training on competitive anxiety in schoolboy rugby players. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2017;15(5):475-87.
7. Gucciardi DF, Hanton S, Fleming S. Are mental toughness and mental health contradictory concepts in elite sport? A narrative review of theory and evidence. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport. 2017;20(3):307-11.
8. Hatzigeorgiadis A, Zourbanos N, Mpoumpaki S, Theodorakis Y. Mechanisms underlying the self-talk–performance relationship: The effects of motivational self-talk on self-confidence and anxiety. Psychology of Sport and exercise. 2009;10(1):186-92.
9. Weinberg RS, Gould D. Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology 6th Edition: Human Kinetics; 2014.
10. Tenenbaum G, Eklund RC. Handbook of sport psychology: John Wiley & Sons; 2007.
11. Röthlin P, Birrer D, Horvath S, Grosse Holtforth M. Psychological skills training and a mindfulness-based intervention to enhance functional athletic performance: design of a randomized controlled trial using ambulatory assessment. BMC psychology. 2016;4(1):39-51.
12. Chan CK, Cameron LD. Promoting physical activity with goal-oriented mental imagery: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. 2012;35(3):347-63.
13. Ardahan F. Life satisfaction and emotional intelligence of participants/nonparticipants in outdoor sports: Turkey case. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 2012;62(6):4-11.
14. Malouff JM, McGee JA, Halford HT, Rooke SE. Effects of pre-competition positive imagery and self-instructions on accuracy of serving in tennis. Journal of Sport Behavior. 2008;31(3)71-83.
15. Hegazy K, Sherif AM, Houta SS. The effect of mental training on motor performance of tennis and field hockey strokes in novice players. Advances in Physical Education. 2015;5(3):77-83.
16. Kruk M, Blecharz J, Boberska M, Zarychta K, Luszczynska A. Mental Strategies Predict Performance and Satisfaction with Performance Among Soccer Players. Journal of human kinetics. 2017;59(1):79-90.
17. Moen F, Firing K, Wells A. The effects of attention training techniques on stress and performance in sports. International Journal of Applied Sports Sciences. 2016;28(2)21-34.
18. Heydari A, Soltani H, Mohammadi-Nezhad M. The effect of Psychological skills training (goal setting, positive selftalk and Imagery) on self-confidence of adolescent volleyball players. Pedagogics, psychology, medical-biological problems of physical training and. 2018;22(4):189-94. (In persian)
19. Mohammadzadeh H, Sami S. Psychological skills of elite and non-elite volleyball players. Annals of applied sport science. 2014;2(1):31-46.
20. P Pelka M, Heidari J, Ferrauti A, Meyer T, Pfeiffer M, Kellmann M et al. Relaxation techniques in sports: A systematic review on acute effects on performance. Performance Enhancement & Health. 2016;5(2):47-59.
21. Li-Wei Z, Qi-Wei M, Orlick T, Zitzelsberger L. The effect of mental-imagery training on performance enhancement with 7-10-year-old children. The Sport Psychology. 1992;6(3):230-41.
22. Seif-Barghi T, Kordi R, Memari AM. Effect of mental imagery on performance elite athletes’ in youth and adult age groups: a randomized trial. Tehran University Medical Journal TUMS Publications. 2013;71(3):171-8. (In persian)
23. Williams JM, Harris DV. Relaxation and energizing techniques for regulation of arousal. Applied sport psychology: Personal growth to peak performance. 2006;5(1):285-305.
24. Ganis G, Thompson WL, Kosslyn SM. Brain areas underlying visual mental imagery and visual perception: an fMRI study. Cognitive Brain Research. 2004;20(2):226-41.
25. Miller KJ, Schalk G, Fetz EE, den Nijs M, Ojemann JG, Rao RP. Cortical activity during motor execution, motor imagery, and imagery-based online feedback. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 2010;107(9):4430-5.
26. Parsaei S, ShetabBoushehri N, Shojaei M. Effect of Different Mental Imagery Speeds on the Motor Performance: Investigation of the Role of Mirror Neurons. Qom University of Medical Sciences Journal. 2017;11(7):21-9. (In persian)
27. Weinberg RS, Comar W. The effectiveness of psychological interventions in competitive sport. Sports Medicine. 1994;18(6):406-18.
28.Garvin MS. The Effects of a Psychological Skills Training Program on Swimming Performance: Self-efficacy and Psychological Skill Use as Mediators: The George Washington University; 2014.
29. Martens R. Coaches guide to sport psychology: A publication for the American Coaching Effectiveness Program: Level 2 sport science curriculum: Human Kinetics Books; 1987.
30. Pavlidou M, Doganis G. The effects of a psychological intervention program in swimming. Journal of Excellence. 2008;12(4):71-7.
31. Cox RH. Sport psychology: Concepts and applications: McGraw-Hill; 1998
32. Whdan N. Effects of relaxation training on muscle tension and the performance level of 50m front crawl swimming. Ovidius University Annals, Series Physical Education & Sport/Science, Movement & Health. 2014;14(1):143-8.