The Effects of Neurofeedback and Mindfulness on Visual Continuous Performance of Young Soccer Players

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor in Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 MSc in Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Concentration, or the ability to focus on the task at hand while ignoring distractions, is a vital determinant of successful performance in sport. The main aim of this study was to examine the effects of neurofeedback and mindfulness interventions on visual continuous performance in young athletes. 45 soccer players (age range of 16 - 20 years) who attended the National Leagues in 2017 were assigned to three groups (alpha/theta neurofeedback intervention, mindfulness intervention, and control). Athletes in neurofeedback group received 12 sessions (2 sessions per week, 30 minutes per session) of neurofeedback training with high alpha/low theta protocol and athletes in mindfulness group received 12 sessions (2 sessions per week, 30 minutes per session) of mindfulness meditation. Before and after interventions, visual continuous performance test was used. The control group received no interventions. The results of mixed ANOVA and ANOVA with repeated measures at significance level of 0.05 showed a significant improvement in all dimensions of visual continuous performance test (omission error, commission error, and reaction time) in neurofeedback and mindfulness groups compared with the control group. Also, the results indicated no significant differences between neurofeedback and mindfulness groups in the dimensions of the visual continuous performance test. The results of this study indicated the effectiveness of alpha/theta neurofeedback training and mindfulness training as visual continuous performance improvement training compared with the control group in young athletes.


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Volume 12, Issue 2
September 2020
Pages 133-151
  • Receive Date: 28 March 2019
  • Revise Date: 04 August 2019
  • Accept Date: 20 July 2019
  • First Publish Date: 22 August 2020