The effect of intensity of secondary task and attentional focus instructions on gaze behavior and accuracy of dart-throwing

Document Type : Research Paper


1 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 PhD, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 MSc, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

4 MSc Student, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

5 MSc Student, Department of Sport Injury and Corrective Exercise, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Numerous studies have examined the effects of focus of attention and quiet eye on motor performance, however the effects of these two variables in different load of task are ambiguous. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of the internal and external focus of attention instructions on quiet eye and accuracy of dart-throwing in two intensity of the secondary task. participants were 20 novice persons in dart-throwing that selected by convenience sampling; and in four dual-task conditions of internal attention-without tone estimation, external attention-without tone estimation, internal attention-with tone estimation, and external attention-with tone estimation performed dart throwing in counterbalance form that at the same time their gaze data recorded by binoculars eye tracking system. The result of accuracy showed that participants in external rather than internal attention condition and low- intensity rather than high-intensity condition had less radial error. The result of quiet eye showed that only the main effect of the secondary task was significant that participants in high-intensity of the secondary task rather low had more quiet eye duration. These results highlight the importance of external focus of attention in low and high secondary task load conditions for dart-throwing performance and direct the future research to explore more deeply the role of the quiet eye and attentional focus effects in dart-throwing performance.


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Volume 12, Issue 3
December 2020
Pages 313-327
  • Receive Date: 08 June 2020
  • Revise Date: 28 September 2020
  • Accept Date: 08 September 2020
  • First Publish Date: 28 September 2020