Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 PhD Student, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran

2 Associated professor, Faculty of Sports Sciences, Islamic Azad University, Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch, Isfahan, Iran

Abstract

Introduction: Children with learning disorder have more inefficient use of gaze strategies in various tasks.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of quiet eye training on muscle activity and targeting-interceptive skill accuracy in children with learning disorder.
Methods: In this semi- experimental study with a repeated-measure design, 30 boys aged 7-10 years with learning disorder were divided into quiet eye and control groups . In the pre-test phase, participants performed 10 trails to throw and catch task the ball. Acquisition phase have done in eight weeks and three sessions in per weeks. In per session after the video-gaze exercises, 10 trials were performed to throw and catch task in accordance with the gaze exercises instructions. At the end of the last training session, in the post-test phase, in two weeks of detraining in the retention and transfer phases, the participants performed 10 trials to throw and catch task the ball. At each phase, the selected muscle electrical activity was recorded by electromyography and the throw and catch task performance was recorded by the researcher. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures with 0.05 significant levels.
Results: The results indicated that quiet eye training have a significant effect on increasing the learning of targeting-interceptive skills and on reducing the muscles electrical activity.
Conclusion: The results of this study support the pre-programming hypothesis on the importance of planning and choosing the correct answer.

Keywords

  1. Robertson S, Elliott D. The influence of skill in gymnastics and vision on dynamic balance. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 1996;27(4):361-8.
  2. Schmidt R, Lee T. Augmented feedback. Motor Control and Learning: A Behavioural Emphasis, 2011. 4.
  3. Bennett S, Davids K. The manipulation of vision during the powerlift squat: Exploring the boundaries of the specificity of learning hypothesis. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport. 1995 Sep 1;66(3):210-8.
  4. Magill RA. Motor learning and control. Concepts and applications. 9th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2011.
  5. Vickers JN. Gaze control in putting. Perception. 1992 Feb;21(1):117-32.
  6. Vickers JN. Perception, cognition, and decision training: The quiet eye in action. Human Kinetics; 2007.
  7. Mann DT, Williams AM, Ward P, Janelle CM. Perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2007 Aug 1;29(4):457-78.
  8. Causer J, Bennett SJ, Holmes PS, Janelle CM, Williams AM. Quiet eye duration and gun motion in elite shotgun shooting. Medicine and science in sports and exercise. 2010 Aug 1;42(8):1599-608.
  9. Janelle CM, Hillman CH, Apparies RJ, Murray NP, Meili L, Fallon EA, Hatfield BD. Expertise differences in cortical activation and gaze behavior during rifle shooting. Journal of Sport and Exercise psychology. 2000 Jun 1;22(2):167-82.
  10. Panchuk D, Vickers JN. Effect of narrowing the base of support on the gait, gaze and quiet eye of elite ballet dancers and controls. Cognitive processing. 2011 Aug 1;12(3):267-76.
  11. Panchuk D, Vickers JN. Gaze behaviors of goaltenders under spatial–temporal constraints. Human movement science. 2006 Dec 1;25(6):733-52.
  12. Williams AM, Singer RN, Frehlich SG. Quiet eye duration, expertise, and task complexity in near and far aiming tasks. Journal of Motor Behavior. 2002 Jun 1;34(2):197-207.
  13. Wilson MR, Pearcy RC. Visuomotor control of straight and breaking golf putts. Perceptual and Motor Skills. 2009 Oct;109(2):555-62.
  14. Vine SJ, Moore LJ, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training: The acquisition, refinement and resilient performance of targeting skills. European journal of sport science. 2014 Jan 1;14(sup1):S235-42.
  15. Wilson MR, Miles CA, Vine SJ, Vickers JN. Quiet eye distinguishes children of high and low motor coordination abilities. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. 2013 Jun 1;45(6):1144-51.
  16. Miles CA, Vine SJ, Wood G, Vickers JN, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training improves throw and catch performance in children. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2014 Sep 1;15(5):511-5.
  17. Miles CA, Wood G, Vine SJ, Vickers JN, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training aids the long-term learning of throwing and catching in children: Preliminary evidence for a predictive control strategy. European Journal of Sport Science. 2015 Jan 2;17(1):100-8.
  18. Miles CA, Wood G, Vine SJ, Vickers JN, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training facilitates visuomotor coordination in children with developmental coordination disorder. Research in Developmental Disabilities. 2015 May 1;40:31-41.
  19. Wood G, Miles CA, Coyles G, Alizadehkhaiyat O, Vine SJ, Vickers JN, Wilson MR. A randomized controlled trial of a group-based gaze training intervention for children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. PLoS One. 2017 Feb 10;12(2):e0171782.
  20. Handford C, Davids K, Bennett S, Button C. Skill acquisition in sport: Some applications of an evolving practice ecology. Journal of sports sciences. 1997 Jan 1;15(6):621-40.
  21. Mann DT, Wright A, Janelle CM. Quiet Eye: The efficiency paradox–comment on Vickers. Current Issues in Sport Science (CISS). 2016 Nov 4.
  22. Beilock SL, Wierenga SA, Carr TH. Expertise, attention, and memory in sensorimotor skill execution: Impact of novel task constraints on dual-task performance and episodic memory. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology Section A. 2002 Oct;55(4):1211-40.
  23. Cooke A, Kavussanu M, Gallicchio G, Willoughby A, McIntyre D, Ring C. Preparation for action: Psychophysiological activity preceding a motor skill as a function of expertise, performance outcome, and psychological pressure. Psychophysiology. 2014 Apr;51(4):374-84.
  24. Babiloni C, Del Percio C, Iacoboni M, Infarinato F, Lizio R, Marzano N, Crespi G, Dassù F, Pirritano M, Gallamini M, Eusebi F. Golf putt outcomes are predicted by sensorimotor cerebral EEG rhythms. The Journal of physiology. 2008 Jan 1;586(1):131-9.
  25. Gallicchio G, Cooke A, Ring C. Practice makes efficient: Cortical alpha oscillations are associated with improved golf putting performance. Sport, exercise, and performance psychology. 2017 Feb;6(1):89.
  26. Klostermann A, Vater C, Kredel R. Tackling Quiet Eye issues on a functional level–comment on Vickers. Current Issues in Sport Science (CISS). 2016 Nov 4.
  27. Moore LJ, Vine SJ, Cooke A, Ring C, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training expedites motor learning and aids performance under heightened anxiety: The roles of response programming and external attention. Psychophysiology. 2012 Jul;49(7):1005-15.
  28. Williams AM. Quiet eye vs. noisy brain: The eye like the brain is always active–comment on Vickers. Current Issues in Sport Science (CISS). 2016 Nov 4.
  29. Rienhoff R, Tirp J, Strauss B, Baker J, Schorer J. The ‘quiet eye’and motor performance: A systematic review based on Newell’s constraints-led model. Sports Medicine. 2016 Apr 1;46(4):589-603.
  30. MonaG, Dhadwad V, yeradkar R, Adhikari A, Setia M. Study of visual perceptual problems in children with learning disability. Indian Journal of Basic and Applied Medical Research. 2015; 4(3): 492-497
  31. Chapparo C, Lane SJ. Learning disabilities and intellectual disabilities. Lane, S. 2012; 525-548
  32. Flanagan JR, Wing AM. The role of internal models in motion planning and control: evidence from grip force adjustments during movements of hand-held loads. Journal of Neuroscience. 1997 Feb 15;17(4):1519-28.
  33. Debrabant J, Gheysen F, Caeyenberghs K, Van Waelvelde H, Vingerhoets G. Neural underpinnings of impaired predictive motor timing in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. Research in developmental disabilities. 2013 May 1;34(5):1478-87.
  34. Robert MP, Ingster‐Moati I, Albuisson E, Cabrol D, Golse B, Vaivre‐Douret L. Vertical and horizontal smooth pursuit eye movements in children with developmental coordination disorder. Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology. 2014 Jun;56(6):595-600.
  35. Sumner E, Hutton SB, Kuhn G, Hill EL. Oculomotor atypicalities in developmental coordination disorder. Developmental science. 2018 Jan;21(1):e12501.
  36. Kuhtz-Buschbeck JP, Keller P. Muscle activity in throwing with the dominant and non-dominant arm. Cogent Medicine. 2019 Jan 1;6(1):1678221.
  37. Henderson SE, Sugden DA, Barnett AL. Movement Assessment Battery for Children—Second Edition (Movement ABC-2). London (UK): Pearson Education Inc; 2007. 125 p.
  38. Akbaripour R, Shojaee M, Daneshfar A. Reliability of the movement assessment battery for children- second edition (MABC-2) in children aged 7-10 years in Tehran. Rehabilitation Mediciene. 2018;7(4):90-96
  39. Sarrami L, Ghasemi A, ArabameriE, Kashi A. Psychometric properties of movement assessment battery for children-2 in children in Isfahan. Journal of Disabilty researches. 2019;9:92-99.
  40. Montes AM, Gouveia S, Crasto C, de Melo CA, Carvalho P, Santos R, Vilas-Boas JP. Abdominal muscle activity during breathing in different postural sets in healthy subjects. Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies. 2017 Apr 1;21(2):354-61.
  41. Vickers JN. Mind over muscle: the role of gaze control, spatial cognition and the quiet eye in motor expertise. Cogn Process. 2011;12:219–22.
  42. Vine SJ, Moore L, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training facilitates competitive putting performance in elite golfers. Frontiers in psychology. 2011 Jan 28;2:8.
  43. Vine SJ, Wilson MR. The influence of quiet eye training and pressure on attention and visuo-motor control. Acta psychologica. 2011 Mar 1;136(3):340-6.
  44. Vine SJ, Wilson MR. Quiet eye training: Effects on learning and performance under pressure. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology. 2010 Nov 2;22(4):361-76.
  45. Klostermann A, Kredel R, Hossner EJ. The quiet eye without a target: The primacy of visual information processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance. 2014 Dec;40(6):2167.
  46. Wood G, Wilson MR. Quiet-eye training, perceived control and performing under pressure. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2012 Nov 1;13(6):721-8.