Document Type : Research Paper


1 Department of motor development and physical education, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.

2 UT


Children in preschool are at an optimal time for the development of gross and fine motor skills. Visual-motor integration is an important perceptual-motor skill that children need to acquire in order to function successfully before formal schooling commences. In this study were investigated the effect of three motor intervention programs (gross, fine, & gross-fine)on visual-motor integration in 80 children who presented below average VMI skills scores. From these participants three experimental (n=60)and a control group (n=20)were randomly selected. The experimental groups participated in a 12 week intervention program of three 45 minutes sessions per week. The Beery-Buktenica developmental test of visual-motor integration 6th edition was used to measure the participants VMI skills. Mixed ANOVA with repeated measures and LSD post hoc test was used to analyze effects of motor intervention programs 


  1. Hardy, L. L. , King, L. , Farrell, L. , Macniven, R. , & Howlett, S. (2010). "Fundamental movement skills among Australian preschool children. " Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 13 (5):503-508.
  2. Caughy, M. O. B. , Huang, K. -Y. , Miller, T. , & Genevro, J. L. (2004). "The effects of the Healthy Steps for Young Children Program: Results from observations of parenting and child development. " Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 19 (4):611-630.
  3. Gallahue, D. L., Ozmun, J. C., & Goodway, J. (2006). Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults: Boston.
  4. Davids, K. W., C. Button, et al. (2008)."Dynamics of skill acquisition: A constraints-led approach" Human Kinetics.
  5. Whitwell, R. L., Milner, A. D., & Goodale, M. A. (2014). The two visual systems hypothesis: new challenges and insights from visual form agnosic patient DF. Frontiers in neurology, 5, 255.
  6. Lotz, L. , Loxton, H. , & Naidoo, A. V. (2005). "Visual-motor integration functioning in a South African middle childhood sample. " Journal of child and adolescent mental health, 17 (2):63-67.
  7. Sortor, J. M. , & Kulp, M. T. (2003). "Are the results of the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration and its subtests related to achievement test scores?" Optometry & Vision Science, 80 (11):758-763.
  8. Kulp, M. T. , & Sortor, J. M. (2003). "Clinical value of the Beery visual-motor integration supplemental tests of visual perception and motor coordination. " Optometry & Vision Science, 80 (4):312-315.
  9. Pieters, S. , Desoete, A. , Roeyers, H. , Vanderswalmen, R. , & Van Waelvelde, H. (2012). "Behind mathematical learning disabilities: What about visual perception and motor skills?" Learning and Individual Differences, 22 (4):498-504.
  10. Van der Merwe, J. , Smit, N. , & Vlok, B. (2011a). "A survey to investigate how South African Occupational Therapists in private practice are assessing and treating poor handwriting in foundation phase learners: Part I-Demographics and assessment practices. " South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, 41 (3):3-11.
  11. Van der Merwe, J. , Smit, N. , & Vlok, B. (2011b). "A survey to investigate how South African Occupational Therapists in private practice are assessing and treating poor handwriting in foundation phase learners: Part II-Treatment and evaluation practices. " South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, 41 (3):11-17.
  12. Kulp, M. T. (1999). "Relationship between visual motor integration skill and academic performance in kindergarten through third grade. " Optometry & Vision Science, 76 (3):159-163.
  13. Feder, K. P. , & Majnemer, A. (2007). "Handwriting development, competency, and intervention. " Developmental Medicine & Child Neurology, 49 (4):312-317.
  14. Dankert, H. L. , Davies, P. L. , & Gavin, W. J. (2003). "Occupational therapy effects on visual-motor skills in preschool children. " American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57 (5):542-549.
  15. Beery, K. E. (2004). "The Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-motor Integration: Beery VMI, with Supplemental Developmental Tests of Visual Perception and Motor Coordination, and Stepping Stones Age Norms from Birth to Age Six. " NCS Pearson, Incorporated.
  16. Emam, M. , & Kazem, A. (2014). "Visual motor integration in children with and without reading disabilities in Oman. " Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences 112:548-556.
  17. Kalantari, M. , Mirahmadpour, M. , Mirzakhani, N. , Hadavand Khani, F. , & Nejati, V. (2012)"The relation between in hand manipulation skills,and visual-motor integration skills with hand writing skills of students of grade one of primery schools in Tehran. " Scientific Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, 1 (3):35-40 (in persian).
  18. Marr, D. , & Cermak, S. (2002). "Predicting handwriting performance of early elementary students with the developmental test of visual-motor integration. " Perceptual and motor skills, 95 (2):661-669.
  19. Barghi Irani, Z. "Study and comparison of response of normal and learning disabled students on beery's test of visual-motor integration. " Journal of Psychological Researches, 2 (6):63-75. (in persian).
  20. Dunn, M. , Loxton, H. , & Naidoo, A. (2006). "Correlations of scores on the developmental test of visual-motor integration and copying test in a south african multi-ethnicpreschool sample 1, 2. " Perceptual and motor skills, 103 (3):951-958.
  21. Ale ebrahim, F. ,Alipour, A.  (2004)"Psychometric Aspects of school readiness first step test. " Journal of Exceptional Children (Reaserch of Exceptional Children), 4 (1-4):79-90. (in persian).
  22. Pagani, L. S. , Fitzpatrick, C. , Archambault, I. , & Janosz, M. (2010). "School readiness and later achievement: a French Canadian replication and extension. " Developmental psychology, 46 (5):984.
  23. Payne, V. G., & Isaacs, L. D. (2017). Human motor development: A lifespan approach: Routledge.
  24. Morrow, M. (2015). "Effectiveness of Fine Motor Intervention in Early Childhood Education. "PhD Thesis.
  25. Brook, G. , Wagenfeld, A. , Thompson, C. , & Lincoln, J. (2011). "Fingergym: Fine Motor Skills-School Readiness Program. " Australian Academic Press.
  26. Senisl, E. J. E. B. www. naeyc. org.
  27. Cameron, C. E. , Brock, L. L. , Murrah, W. M. , Bell, L. H. , Worzalla, S. L. , Grissmer, D. , et al. (2012). "Fine motor skills and executive function both contribute to kindergarten achievement. " Child development, 83 (4):1229-1244.
  28. Ohl, A. M. , Graze, H. , Weber, K. , Kenny, S. , Salvatore, C. , & Wagreich, S. (2013). "Effectiveness of a 10-week Tier-1 Response to Intervention program in improving fine motor and visual–motor skills in general education kindergarten students. " American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 67 (5):507-514.
  29. Poon, K. , Li-Tsang, C. , Weiss, T. , & Rosenblum, S. (2010). "The effect of a computerized visual perception and visual-motor integration training program on improving Chinese handwriting of children with handwriting difficulties. " Research in developmental disabilities, 31 (6):1552-1560.
  30. Africa, E. K. , & van Deventer, K. J. (2017). "A motor-skills programme to enhance visual motor integration of selected pre-school learners. " Early Child Development and Care, 187 (12):1960-1970.
  31. Van Jaarsveld, A. , Vermaak, M. , & van Rooyen, C. (2011a). "The development status of street children in Potchefstroom, South Africa. " South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, 41 (1):5-8.
  32. Wajuihian, S. , & Naidoo, K. (2011). "Dyslexia: An overview. " African Vision and Eye Health, 70 (2):89-98.
  33. Janus, M., & Offord, D. R. (2007). Development and psychometric properties of the Early Development Instrument (EDI): A measure of children's school readiness. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des sciences du comportement, 39(1), 1.
  34. Mehrpour, Z. (1994). " Standardization (Beery visual-motor coordination test) for 6-8 year-old children in kindergarten and primary school in Shiraz." M.A.Thesis (in persian).
  35. Irmak, H. (2010). The effects of two motor skill interventions on preschool children's object control skills and their perceived motor competence. The Ohio State University.
  36. Reed, S. (2017). Gross Motor in the Preschool Classroom.
  37. Werner-Riny. (2017). "Perceptual-motor development equipment ideas & activities. " Translated by: Sazmand, A. H. & Tabatabaie Nia, M. 6th Danjeh. (in persian).
  38. Huffman, J. M. , & Fortenberry, C. (2011). "Helping preschoolers prepare for writing: Developing fine motor skills. " YC Young Children, 66 (5):100.
  39. Tahmasebi, SH. , Shahbazi, M. and Pour soltani, H. (2008). "Application of SPSS in Physical Education and Sport Sciences. " 1st Elm o Harekat. (in persian).
  40. Bazyk, S. , Michaud, P. , Goodman, G. , Papp, P. , Hawkins, E. , & Welch, M. A. (2009). "Integrating occupational therapy services in a kindergarten curriculum: A look at the outcomes. " American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 63 (2):160-171.
  41. Dibek, E. (2012). "Implementation of visual motor ability enhancement program for 5 years old. " Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 46:1924-1932.
  42. Van Jaarsveld, A. , Vermaak, M. , & van Rooyen, C. (2011b). "The developmental status of street children in Potchefstroom, South Africa. " South African Journal of Occupational Therapy, 41 (1):5-8.
  43. Tepeli, K. (2013). The relationship between gross motor skills and visual perception of preschoolers. Turkish Journal of Sport and Exercise, 15(1), 43-53.