The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of explaining psychological resilience based on self-efficacy in athlete and non-athlete university students. A sample of 403 (198 females and 205 males) athlete and non-athlete university students, who were selected via purposive sampling procedure, completed resilience and self-efficacy scales. Regression analysis, one-way ANOVA, and t test were used to analyze the data. The results showed that self-efficacy was the positive significant predictor of resilience. Athletes and non-athletes had different patterns to predict psychological resilience by self-efficacy. Also, it was revealed that athletes scored higher than non-athletes in resilience while there was no significant difference among athletes of different sport fields. Also, there was no significant difference in resilience between males and females. The present article ended with a discussion of findings and suggestion of more research in this area.