The aim of this study was to determine the interactional effects of various video
shows (skilled and self-model) and feedback type on performance and learning of
dart throwing skill. 90 volunteers were randomly divided into 6 groups including
self-control, experimenter control and yoked feedback that received either skilled
model or self-model. Three groups who watched the skilled model observed dart
throwing by a member of dart national team at first and at rest intervals whereas
self-model groups watched their own performance as a recorded movie. Selfcontrol
groups requested feedback from the examiner during their performance.
Yoked groups received feedback in those attempts on which self-control groups
requested feedback and experimenter-control groups received feedback by
examiner. Subjects trained for six days and then participated in the retention (after
48 hours) and transfer (immediately after retention) tests. The method of the study
was semi-experimental and data were analyzed using analysis of variance with
repeated measures, two-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni and Tukey post
hoc tests. Results showed that all six groups improved from pretest to acquisition,
retention and transfer. Regardless of the role of feedback, there was no difference
between skilled and self-model in any stages. Experimenter control feedback had
more efficiency than other feedbacks in the acquisition while self-control feedback
was better in retention and transfer. Furthermore, results showed that those
subjects who received self-control feedback had more learning when they observed
self-model. The main reason why self-model-self-control feedback group was better
than other groups could be the effect of motivational processes resulted from this
interaction and more coordination of this feedback with subjects’ demands.