Document Type : Research Paper


1 Hakim Sabzevari University

2 University of Tehran

3 Yazd University


There is no doubt that augmented feedback has an important role in improving
learning. However, it is the content of the feedback which is challenging. The aim
of the present study was to examine the effect of feedback on successful versus
unsuccessful trials on simple and complex tracking tasks. For this purpose, 48
undergraduate right-handed male and female students of Hakim Sabzevari Teacher
Training University (mean age = 23+1.8 yr) were selected from those students who
had taken general physical education course and were randomly divided into four
groups (N=12) of feedback on successful and unsuccessful trials in simple and
complex tasks. The tracking task was designed in two levels (simple and complex)
in a computer software format to be performed by the participants with maximum
speed and the lowest number of errors. During the acquisition phase, participants
performed 7 blocks of 6 trials in 8 days and they received feedback on two trials.
The method of research was quasi–experimental and ANOVA for multiple factors,
analysis of variance with repeated measures and Bonferroni post hoc test (P˂0.05)
were used for data analysis. The results showed that in the acquisition test, the
main effects of trial days and task complexity (in movement time) were significant.
These factors did not significantly influence movement error and their interaction.
In immediate retention test, the effects of the type of task and feedback (in
movement time) were significant while these factors did not significantly influence
movement error and their interaction. In delayed retention test, the effect of the
type of task was significant in movement time and movement error. The types of
feedback and task were significant in transfer test (in movement time) and these
factors and their interactions were not significant in movement error. The results
suggested that the types of feedback and task can be regarded as effective
independent factors in learning. The types of feedback and task were more effective
for movement time.