Document Type : Research Paper I Open Access I Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license


1 Shahid Beheshti University

2 University of Tehran


Success is satisfactory for any athlete. However, some athletes will face anxiety
in novel circumstances and fear of future will prevent them from improving. Fear
of failure is accompanied with stress and adaptation to stress is the most important
issue for an effective decision. The aim of this study was to examine validity and
reliability of performance failure appraisal inventory (PFAI). For this purpose,
203 athlete university students (93 women and 110 men who aged between 19 and
23 with the physical activity record 7.70±4.4) completed PFAI. Confirmatory
factor analysis was used to examine construct validity, Cronbach’s alpha
coefficient to examine internal consistency of the items of each factor, and Pearson
correlation coefficient to examine inter-factor reliability. Results of confirmatory
factor analysis confirmed five factors in PFAI: fear of devaluing one’s self-esteem
(4 items), fear of an uncertain future (4 items), fear of upsetting important
individuals (5 items), fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment (7 items) and
fear of losing important individuals’ interest (5 items). Correlation analysis
showed an acceptable correlation between all of these factors and fear of failure.
The results of Cronbach’s alpha coefficient showed acceptable internal consistency
of items of each subscale.