Document Type : Research Paper


1 Yazd University

2 Alzahra University

3 Sabzevar University

4 Eslamic Azad University (Tehran Centre Branch)


Contextual interference is one of the instructional methods for several skills.
The aim of this research was to determine the effects of interference before
performance and interference during performance on the acquisition and retention
of generalized motor program and parameter in basketball skills with an emphasis
on the examination of contextual interference hypotheses and self-regulation
learning theories. In interference before performance, self-practice schedules is
generated (self-regulation effect) and interference during performance,
experimenter-imposed practice schedule is generated (contextual interference
effect). For this purpose, 120 students of Yazd University (age range 19-21 years
old) who had no prior experience in basketball skills volunteered to participate in
this study. Participants were randomly assigned to 10 groups (each 12 subjects); 5
groups practiced with generalized motor program (dribble, chest pass and free
throw skills) and 5 groups practiced with parameter (free throw from different
distances) in practice schedules (blocked, random, serial, self-regulated and yoked
to self-regulated). To collect data, throw and pass test (AAHPERD basketball test)
and dribble test (Johnson basketball test) were used. After the pretest, in the
acquisition phase, subjects took part in 5 training sessions including 45 trails per
session (15 trails each block) for 5 days. After 48 hours, they participated in
retention test with 15 trails (5 trials each task). The data were analyzed by one-way 
ANOVA, factor analysis of variance with repeated measures, LSD and Duncan
post hoc tests. Results showed a significant difference among practice schedules in
acquisition and retention phases of generalized motor program, that is, the effect of
contextual interference was observed in this program (p<0.05). Also, there was a
significant difference among the schedules in acquisition and retention phases of
parameter, that is, controlling the design of practice has a positive effect on
learning (p<0.05). Thus, the results suggested that during learning process, the
effect of interference before performance was more important than during