Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

Razi University of Kermanshah

Abstract

This study aimed at investigating the effect of the type of feedback and practice on the acquisition of parameter index. For this purpose, 8 groups (each 12 subjects) were formed: constant practice group with self–controlled feedback, constant practice group with yoked feedback (yoked group), blocked practice group with self–controlled feedback, blocked practice group with yoked feedback, random practice group with self–controlled feedback, random practice group with yoked feedback, serial practice group with self–controlled feedback and serial practice group with yoked feedback. The subjects threw towards a circle drawn on the ground with closed eyes from a 3m distance with the score range from 10 to 100 (failing to throw in the circle meant no score). The data were analyzed using mixed factorial analysis of variance and one-way analysis of variance (P<0.05). In the retention test, the self–controlled feedback prioritized the yoked feedback (P<0.05); however, the effect of practice type was not observed (P>0.05), that is, there was no difference between practice in contextual interference condition and practice in constant condition. The results observed in the transfer test were contrary to those observed in retention test, that is, the effect of feedback type was not observed (P>0.05). The results also showed that the children did not reach the final stage of self-regulation (i.e. generalization) while the effect of practice type was observed (P<0.05) and the practice groups in contextual interference condition were superior. Also, there was no statistically significant difference among practice groups in contextual interference condition (i.e. blocked, serial and random practice groups) in all acquisition stages. Overall, this study showed the beneficial effect of self–controlled feedback in the retention test and practice in contextual interference condition in the transfer test in children. As there was no difference among practice groups in contextual interference condition, the present results confirmed Magill and Hall's (1990) second hypothesis, because the effect of contextual interference was not observed in a similar motor program.

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