Document Type : Research Paper


1 M.Sc. of Motor Behavior, Physical Education Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz, Iran

2 Associate Professor of Motor Behavior, Physical Education Faculty, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

3 Assistant Professor of Physical Education, Humanity Sciences Faculty, University of Arak, Arak, Iran


The aim of the present study was to examine the reliability and validity of
balance performance clinical tests for hearing impaired persons with moderate
hearing level. In this descriptive-survey study with repeated measures, 220 hearing
impaired subjects with normal intelligence and moderate hearing level were
selected as the statistical sample from all deaf and hearing impaired subjects who
had participated in national competitions in Arak city. The scale (3) of Cattell
Culture Fair Intelligence Test and motor performance clinical tests were used to
collect the data. After checking the date normality, data were analyzed with intraclass
and interclass correlation coefficients and factor analysis tests. The results
revealed that finger-to-noise test with dominant hand (ICC=0.79), and with nondominant
hand (ICC=0.81), time-up and go test (ICC=0.76), and tandem gait test
(ICC=0.87) were reliable. But, the dominant and non-dominant single leg stance
tests with open and closed eyes were not reliable (ICC<0.75). The validity of
balance performance clinical tests was confirmed with factor analysis test. Overall,
the finger-to-noise with dominant and non-dominant hand, the time-up and go, and
the tandem gait tests were the most stable tests to assess balance and coordination
of hearing impaired participants.


  1. آهویی، محمدرضا. (1375). "هنجاریابی مقدماتی آزمون هوش رایموند، ب. کتل دانش‌آموزان 6/17-6/14 سال شهر نیشابور در سال تحصیلی 75-74" .پایان‌نامۀ کارشناسی ارشد، دانشگاه تربیت معلم. تهران. فصل سوم. ص 73.
  2. کلانتری، خلیل. (1387). "پردازش و تحلیل داده‌ها در تحقیقات اجتماعی اقتصادی (با استفاده از نرم‌افزار spss)"، انتشارات شریف. چاپ سوم. ص 65.
  3. DeKegel, A. Dhooge, I. Cambier, D.  Baetens, T.  Palmans, T. (2011). "Test retest reliability of the assessment of postural stability in typically developing children and the hearing impaired children". Gait & Posture, 33, PP: 679-685.
  4. DeKegel, A. Dhooge, I. Peersman, W. Rijckaert, J. Baetens, T. Cambier, D. (2010). "Construct validity of the assessment of balance in children who are developing typically and in children with hearing impairments". Physical Therapy, 90, 12, PP: 83–94.
  5. Deliagina, T.G. Orlovsky, G.N. Zelenin, P.V. Beloozerova, N.(2006(. "Neural bases of postural control". Physiology (Bethesda), 21, PP:216-225.
  6. Desrosiers, J. Hebert, R. Bravo, G. Dutil, E. (1995)." Upper- extremity motor co- ordination of healthy elderly people". Age and Ageing, 4, 2, PP: 101-12.
  7. Doyle, R.J. Hsiao-Wecksler, E.T. Ragan, B.G. Rosengren, K.S. (2007). "Generalizability of center of pressure measures of quiet standing". Gait & Posture, 25: PP. 166–71.
  8. Effgen, S.K. (1981). "Effect of an exercise program on the static balance of deaf children". Physical Therapy, 61, 6, PP: 873-7.
  9. Foster, J. Bakus, E. Yavorsky, Ch. (2006). "Understanding and using advanced statistic." London: SAGE Publications Ltd , PP:123.
  10. Giorgetti, M. M. Harris, B. A. Jette, A. (1998). "Reliability of clinical balance outcome measures in the elderly". Physiotherapy Research International, 3, 4, PP: 274-283.
  11. Hessari, F. Norasteh, A. Daneshmandi, H. Ortakand, S. (2011). "The effect of 8 weeks core stabilization training program on balance in deaf students". Medicina Sportiva, 15, 2, PP: 56-61.
  12. Hoark, F. (2006). "Postural orientation and equilibrium: what do we need to know about neural control of balance to prevent fall?" Age and Ageing, 352, PP: 2-11.
  13. Isles, C.R. Lowchoy, N.L. Steer, M. Nitz, J.C .(2004".(Normal values of balance tests in women aged 20- 80". American Geriatrics Society, 52, PP: 1367-1372.
  14. Le, C. K. Riach, C. (1996). "Postural stability measures: what to measure and for how long". Clinical Biomechanics (Bristol Avon), 11, PP: 176–8.
  15. Lotfi, Y. Jafari, Z. (2003). "The age of hearing loss diagnosis on 1 to 72 months hearing–impaired children in rehabilitation centers of Welfare Organization of IRAN". Daneshvar Journal, 48, PP:39-44.
  16. Morsh, J.E. (1936). "Motor performance of the deaf". Comparative Psychological Monograph, 13, PP: 1-51.
  17. Myklebust, H.R. (1964). "The Psychology of Deafness". 2nd Ed. New York, NY: Grune & Stratton Inc, pp: 124.
  18. Myklebust, H.R (1953). "Towards a new understanding of the deaf child". American Annals of the Deaf, 98, PP: 345-357.
  19. Nishikawa, K. Biewener, A.A. Aerts, P. Ahn, A.N. (2007) ".Neuromechanics: An integrative approach for understanding motor control". Journal of Integrative and Comparative Biology, 47, 1, PP: 16-54.
  20. Ottenbache, K. J. Tomchek, S. D. (1992) "Reliability analysis in therapeutic research: practice and procedure". American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 47, PP: 10–6.
  21. Pender, R. H, Patterson, P. E. (1982).  "A comparison of selected motor fitness items between congenitally deaf and hearing children". Journal of Special Education, 18, PP: 71-75.
  22. Santos, B.R. Delisle, A. LariviFre, C. Plamondon, A. Imbeau, D. (2008). "Reliability of centre of  pressure summary measures of postural steadiness in healthy young adults" .Gait & Posture, 27, PP: 408–15.
  23. Schneiders, A. Sullivan, S. Gray, A. (2010). "Normative values for three clinical measures of motor performance used in the neurological". Journal of science and medicine in sport, 13, PP: 196-201.
  24. Shrout, P. E. Fleiss, J. L. (1979) "Infraclass correlations: uses in assessing rater reliability". Psychological Bulletin, 86, PP: 420–8.
  25. Skinner, A. (2008). "A pilot project to investigate a novel computerized concussion assessment tool for use in the emergency department and other outpatient setting". A Thesis submitted to the department of community health and epidemiology.PP: 1-129.
  26. Slegel, C. J. Marchetti, M. Tecklin, S. J. (1991). "Age-related balance changes in hearing-impaired children". Physical Therapy, 71, 3, PP: 183-189.
  27. Tekin, M. Arnos, K.S. Pandya, A. (2001) "Advances in Hereditary Deafness. Seminar". The LANCET, 358,290, PP: 1082-90.
  28. Wall, J. C., Bell, G., Campbell, S., Davis, J. (2000)."The timed get- up- and- go test revisited: Measurement of the component tasks". Journal of Rehabilitation Res and Development, 37(1): 109- 114. 
  29. Winnick, J.P. Short, F.X. (1986). "A comparison of the physical fitness of segregated and integrated hearing impaired adolescents". Clinical Kinesiology, 42, 4, PP: 104-109.
  30. Zwierzchowska, A. Gawlik, K. Grabara, M. (2008). "Deafness and motor ability level". Biology of sport, 25, PP: 263-274.