Motor Impulsivity and Learning of BasketballBasic Skills

Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

Abstract

 
Impulsivity features of individuals affect their movement patterns when learning sports skills. Therefore, this study examined the effect of different levels of motor impulsivity on learning basketball basic skills. 3 groups of boys aged between 10 and 12 who were selected according to motor impulsivity levels participated in a basketball skills training course along with a control group (the subjects were randomly selected). To evaluate their performance,AAHPERD and Hann basketball pass tests were used in thepretest, posttest, retentionandtransfer phases. The results of covariance and analysis of variance in posttest (P=0.0001) andretention test (P=0.011) inAAHPERD basketball pass showed a significant advantagein this test along with increased motor impulsivity levels.However,better performance were along with decreased impulsivity levelsinHann pass task. The observed differences among the groups were not statistically significantin the transfer phase(P=0.112). It can be concluded that different levels of motor impulsivity is one of the main factors affecting sport skills learningwith regard to the speed-oriented and accuracy-oriented skills.
 

Keywords


1. بشارت، محمدعلی؛ قهرمانی، محمدحسین؛ نقی‌پور، بهنام (139).«نقش پیش‌بین خودتنظیم‌گری و تکانش­گری در موفقیت ورزشی: مقایسۀ ورزش‌های برخوردی و غیربرخوردی»، نشریۀ رفتار حرکتی، پژوهشگاه تربیت ‌بدنی، 6: 18، ص 147-131.
2. تدای باروم گا رتنر؛ آندراس، جکسون (1380). سنجش و اندازه­گیری در تربیت بدنی (ج دوم)، ترجمۀ حسین سپاسی و پریوش نوربخش، تهران، سمت، ص 86-71.
3. رضایی، فاطمه؛ فرخی، احمد؛ باقرزاده، فضل‌اله (1391). «اثر خودگفتاری انگیزشی بر اجرای مهارت­های حرکتی ساده و پیچیدۀ بسکتبال»، نشریۀ رشد و یادگیری حرکتی-ورزشی، پاییز و زمستان، ش10، ص 44-29.
4. قهرمانی، محمدحسین؛ بشارت، محمدعلی؛ سهرابی، مهدی (1393). «ویژگی­های تکانش­گری بازیکنان پست­های مختلف فوتبال: آزمون دیدگاه گرایش غالب»، نشریۀ رشد و یادگیری - حرکتی – ورزشی، زمستان، دورۀ 6، ش 6، ص 160-141.
5. بشارت، محمدعلی؛ قهرمانی، محمدحسین؛ احمدی، نصور (1391). «ویژگی‌های تکانش­گری ورزشکاران رشته‌های برخوردی و غیر برخوردی»، نشریۀ پژوهش در مدیریت ورزشی و رفتار حرکتی-دانشگاه خوارزمی، 5 (3)، ص­ 23-13.
6. قهرمانی، محمدحسین؛ سهرابی، مهدی؛ بشارت، محمدعلی (1394). «بررسی روایی و پایایی آزمون برو/نرو حرکتی برای ارزیابی ویژگی­های توجهی، تصمیم­گیری و حرکتی تکانش­گری»، نشریۀ پژوهش در مدیریت ورزشی و رفتار حرکتی-دانشگاه مازندران، ش 1119(زیر چاپ).
7. سهرابی، مهدی؛ قهرمانی، محمدحسین؛ بشارت، محمدعلی (1394). «بررسی ویژگی­های تکانش­گری دروازه­بانان فوتبال در سطوح مختلف مهارتی»، نشریۀ مطالعات روان‌شناسی ورزشی، بهار، ش 11، ص­52-41.
 
8. Adolphs, R. (2001). "The neurobiology of social cognition. Current opinion in neurobiology", 11(2), 231-239.
9. Ball, S. A., & Zuckerman, M. (1990). "Sensation seeking, Eysenck's personality dimensions and reinforcement sensitivity in concept formation". Personality and Individual Differences, 11(4), 343-353.
10.Barch, D. M., Burgess, G. C., Harms, M. P., Petersen, S. E., Schlaggar, B. L., Corbetta, M., . . . Feldt, C. (2013). "Function in the human connectome: task-fMRI and individual differences in behavior". Neuroimage, 80, 169-189.
11. Bjork, J. M., & Pardini, D. A. (2015). "Who are those “risk-taking adolescents”?" Individual differences in developmental neuroimaging research. Developmental cognitive neuroscience, 11, 56-64.
12. Button, A. (2011). "Aims, principles and methodologies in talent identification and development". Performance psychology. A practitioner's guide, Elsevier, Edinburgh, 9-29.
13. Colder, C. R., & O'connor, R. M. (2004). "Gray's reinforcement sensitivity model and child psychopathology: Laboratory and questionnaire assessment of the BAS and BIS". Journal of abnormal child psychology, 32(4), 435-451.
14. Conners, C. K., & Staff, M. (2000). "Conners' Continuous Performance Test II (CPT II V. 5). North Tonawanda", NY: Multi-Health Systems Inc, 1-16.
15. Collins, D.R. Hodges, P.B. "A comprehensive Guide to sports skills tests and  measurement" (2nd Ed.). Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, 2001, p. 69-71.
16. Dickman, S. J. (1990). "Functional and dysfunctional impulsivity: personality and cognitive correlates". Journal of personality and social psychology, 58(1), 95.
17. Dickman, S. J. (1993). "Impulsivity and information processing". In W. Mccown, M. Shure, & J. Johnson (Eds.), The impulsive client: Theory, research and treatment 1993; p. 151–184.
18. Dickman, S. J., & Meyer, D. E. (1988). "Impulsivity and speed-accuracy tradeoffs in information processing". Journal of personality and social psychology, 54(2), 274.
19. Dolk, T., Liepelt, R., Villringer, A., Prinz, W., & Ragert, P. (2012). "Morphometric gray matter differences of the medial frontal cortex influence the social Simon effect". NeuroImage, 61(4), 1249-1254.
20. Enticott, P. G., Ogloff, J. R., & Bradshaw, J. L. (2006). "Associations between laboratory measures of executive inhibitory control and self-reported impulsivity". Personality and Individual Differences, 41(2), 285-294.
21. Evenden, J. L. (1999). "Varieties of impulsivity. Psychopharmacology", 146(4), 348-361.
22.Gobel, E. W., Parrish, T. B., & Reber, P. J. (2011). "Neural correlates of skill acquisition: decreased cortical activity during a serial interception sequence learning task". Neuroimage, 58(4), 1150-1157.
23. Gooijers, J., & Swinnen, S. (2014). "Interactions between brain structure and behavior: the corpus callosum and bimanual coordination". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews, 43, 1-19.
24.Gray, J. A. (1970). "The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extraversion". Behaviour research and therapy, 8(3), 249-266.
25. Gray, J. A. (1987). "Perspectives on anxiety and impulsivity: A commentary". Journal of Research in Personality, 21(4), 493-509.
26. Helsen, W. F., & Starkes, J. L. (1999). "A multidimensional approach to skilled perception and performance in sport". Applied Cognitive Psychology, 13(1), 1-27.
27. Henry, F. M., & Rogers, D. E. (1960). "Increased response latency for complicated movements and a “memory drum” theory of neuromotor reaction". Research Quarterly. American Association for Health, Physical Education and Recreation, 31(3), 448-458.
28. Juan, C.-H., & Muggleton, N. G. (2012). "Brain stimulation and inhibitory control. Brain stimulation", 5(2), 63-69.
29. Keye, M., Roth, N., Westhus, W., & Heine, A. (2004). "Continuous Performance Task (CPT)-Manual" .Gottigen: Hogrefeverlag fur psychology; p. 40-65.
30. Lage, G. M., Gallo, L. G., Cassiano, G. J., Lobo, I. L., Vieira, M. V., Fuentes, D., & Malloy-Diniz, L. F. (2011). "Correlations between impulsivity and technical performance in handball female athletes". Psychology, 2(07), 721.
31. Lage, G. M., Malloy-Diniz, L. F., Matos, L. O., Bastos, M., Abrantes, S., & Corrêa, H. (2011). "Impulsivity and the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism in a non-clinical sample". Plos one, 6(2), 26-27.
32. Lage, G. M., Malloy-Diniz, L. F., Neves, F. S., de Moraes, P. H. P., & Corrêa, H. (2012). "A kinematic analysis of the association between impulsivity and manual aiming control". Human movement science, 31(4), 811-823.
33. Lemke, M. R., Fischer, C. J., Wendorff, T., Fritzer, G., Rupp, Z., & Tetzlaff, S. (2005). "Modulation of involuntary and voluntary behavior following emotional stimuli in healthy subjects". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, 29(1), 69-76.
34. Moeller, F. G., Barratt, E. S., Dougherty, D. M., Schmitz, J. M., & Swann, A. C. (2014). "Psychiatric aspects of impulsivity. American journal of psychiatry". 2001; 158, p. 1783-1793.
35. Müller, J. M., & Wytykowska, A. M. (2005). "Psychometric properties and validation of a Polish adaptation of Carver and White’s BIS/BAS scales". Personality and Individual Differences, 39(4), 795-805.
36. Overtoom, C. C., Verbaten, M. N., Kemner, C., Kenemans, J. L., van Engeland, H., Buitelaar, J. K., Koelega, H. S. (1998). "Associations between event-related potentials and measures of attention and inhibition in the Continuous Performance Task in children with ADHD and normal controls". Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 37(9), 977-985.
37. Pustovaya, O., Ivanitskaya, L & Lednova, M. (2013). "A review of EEG features in attention deficit hyperactiveity disorder". 2013 № 4, 43. 61-75.
38. Reeve, C. L. (2007). "Functional impulsivity and speeded ability test performance". International Journal of Selection and Assessment, 15(1), 56-62.
39. Schmidt, R. A., Zelaznik, H., Hawkins, B., Frank, J. S., & Quinn Jr, J. T. (1979). "Motor-output variability: a theory for the accuracy of rapid motor acts". Psychological review, 86(5), 415.
40. Smillie, L. D., & Jackson, C. J. (2006). "Functional impulsivity and reinforcement sensitivity theory". Journal of Personality, 74(1), 47-84.
41. Spinella, M. (2005). "Prefrontal substrates of empathy: Psychometric evidence in a community sample". Biological psychology, 70(3), 175-181.
42. Vigil-Colet, A. (2007). "Impulsivity and decision making in the balloon analogue risk-taking task". Personality and Individual Differences, 43(1), 37-45.
43. Wulf, G., & Shea, C. H. (2002). "Principles derived from the study of simple skills do not generalize to complex skill learning". Psychonomic bulletin & review, 9(2), 185-211.
Volume 8, Issue 3 - Serial Number 3
October 2016
Pages 495-515
  • Receive Date: 17 October 2015
  • Revise Date: 11 June 2016
  • Accept Date: 11 June 2016
  • First Publish Date: 22 September 2016