Document Type : Research Paper


1 kharazmi university

2 Associate Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Dyad training is a method in which pair groups participate in learning motor skills and it seems that it could be characterized as an optimal instructional environment through enhancing effectiveness and efficiency of training conditions. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of dyad training on learning front crawl swimming. Twenty 7-10-year-old boys were assigned to two groups of dyad and individual training (each group 10 subjects). After receiving instructions and observing the perfect skill, subjects were paired; one half entered the water to perform the required skill and the other half stayed outside and like a coach gave his partner a feedback on his performance after observing his trial. After some trials, they exchanged their roles. However, after receiving instructions and observing the perfect model, all children in individual group entered the water and simultaneously performed the required skill. In the retention test, each child’s 10 m swimming was filmed and these clips were evaluated by 2 federation coaches using front crawl swimming checklist. The inter class correlation coefficient was 0.90. The results of retention test showed a significant difference between dyad and individual groups (P<0.05). So it can be concluded that dyad training method is not only economical in terms of energy consumption and instructional environment but also more effective compared with the traditional swimming instruction methods.


  1. . بری، ایوا (1973). به کودکان شنا بیاموزید، ترجمۀ شعله ماهوتیان (1371)، انتشارات الفبا.

    2. پروین‌پور، شهاب؛ بهرام، عباس؛ قدیری، فرهاد؛ بلالی، مرضیه (1389). «تأثیر آگاهی از نتیجۀ خودکنترلی بر یادگیری مشاهده‌ای در یک برنامۀ تمرینی دوتایی»، پژوهش در علوم ورزشی، ش 5، ص 106-89.

    3. گرینسکی، استیو (1952). ­یادگیری مشارکتی در تربیت بدنی، ترجمۀ سید محمدکاظم واعظ موسوی، محمود مرشدی (1386)، سمت.

    1. Adams, J. A. (1986). Use of the model's knowledge of results to increase the observer's performance. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 19, 89-98.
    2. Bandura, A. (1969) Principles of behavior modification. New York: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.
    3. Black, C.B., & Wright, D.L. (2000). Can observational practice facilitate error recognition and movement production? Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 71, 331-339.
    4. Boyce, B. A. (1992). Effects of assigned versus participant-self goals on skill acquisition and retention of a selected shooting task. Journal of Teaching in Physical education. 11, 220-234.
    5. Chen, D., & Singer, R. N. (1992). Self-regulation and cognitive strategies in sport participation. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 23, 277-300.
    6. Chiviacowski, S, Wulf, G., Laroque de Medeiros, F., Kaefer, A., & Tani, G. (2008). Learning benefits of self-controlled knowledge of results in 10-year-old children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 79, 3, 405-410.

    10. Clark, SH., Ste-Marie, D. (2007). The impact of self-as-a-model interventions on children’s self-regulation on learning and swimming performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 25: 5, 577 – 586.

    11. Crook, A. E., & Beier, M. E. (2010). When training with a partner is inferior to training alone: The importance of dyad type and interaction quality. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 16, 335-348.

    12. Deakin, J., & Proteau, L. (2000). The role of scheduling in learning through observation. Journal of Motor Behavior, 32(3), 268-276 Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

    13. Festinger. L. A. (1954). A theory of social comparison processes. Human Relations. 7. 117-140.

    14. Gallahue, D. L., & Ozmun, J. C. (2006). Understanding motor development: infants, children, adolescents, and adults (6th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill.

    15. Granados, C., & Wulf, G. (2007). Enhancing motor learning through dyad practice: contributions of observation and dialogue. Research for quarterly exercise and sport, 78(3), 197-203.

    16. Kyllo. L. B. & Landers. D. M. (1995). Goal setting in sport and exercise: A research synthesis to resolve the controversy. Journal of sport & Exercise Psychology. 17. 117-137.

    17. Lee. T. L., Swinnen. S. P., & Serrien. D. J. (1994). Cognitive effort and motor learning. Quest. 46. 328-344.

    18. Martens, R. (1975). Social psychology and physical activity. New York: Harper & Row.

    19. McCombs, M. L. (1989). Self-regulated learning and achievement: A phenomenological view. In B. J. Zimmerman & D. H. Schunk (Eds), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement theory, research, and practice: Progress in cognitive development research (pp.51-82). New York: Springer.

    20. McCullagh, P., & Caird, J.K. (1990). Correct and learning models and the use of model knowledge of results in the acquisition and retention of a motor skill. Journal of Human Movement Studies, 18, 107-116.

    21. McCullagh, P., & Meyer, K. N. (1997). Learning versus correct models: Influence of model type on the learning of a free-weight squat lift. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68(1), 56–65.

    22. Shea, C. H., Wulf, G., & Whitacre, C. (1999). Enhancing training efficiency and effectiveness through the use of dyad training. Journal of Motor Behavior, 31, 2, 119-125.

    23. Shea, C.H., Wright, D.L, Wulf, G., Whitacre, C. (2000). Physical and observational practice afford unique learning opportunities. Journal of Motor Behavior, 32, 27-36.

    24. Sheffield, F.N. (1961). Theoretical considerations in the learning of complex sequential tasks from demonstrations and practice. In A.A. Lumsdaine (Ed.) Student response in programmed instruction (pp. 13-32). Washington, DC: National Academy of Sciences.

    25. Titzer. R., Shea. J. B., & Romack. J. (1993). The effect of learner control on the acquisition and retention of a motor task. Journal of sport and Exercise psychology, 15 (suppl.). S84.

    26. Weeks, D. L., & Anderson, L. P. (2002). The interaction of observational learning with overt practice: Effect on motor learning . Acta Psychologica, 104, 259-271.

    27. Weinberg. R. S. (1994). Goal setting and performance in sport and exercise setting: A synthesis and critique. Medicine and science in Sports and exercise, 26. 469-477.

    28. Weiss, M. R., McCullagh, P., Smith, A. L., & Berlant, A. R. (1998). Observational learning and the fearful child: Influence of peer models on swimming skill performance and psychological responses. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 69, 380- 394.

    29. Williams, A.M., Davids, K., & Williams, J.G. (1999). Visual perception and action in Sport. London: E. & F.N. Spon.

    30. Wulf, G., Clauss, A., & Shea, CH. (2001). Benefits of self-control in dyad practice. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 72(3), 299-303.

    31. Wulf, G., & Mornell, A. (2008). Insights about practice from the perspective of motor learning: a review. Music Performance Research, 2, 1-25.

    32. Wulf, G., Raupach, M., & Pfeiffer, F. (2005). Self-controlled observational practice enhances learning, Research for quarterly exercise and sport, 76(1), 107-111.