Document Type : Research Paper


1 PhD Student of Clinical Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

2 Assistant Professor of Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 PhD Student of Sport Psychology, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran


Taekwondo athletes experience a lot of pressure during the competition, because they must attack and defend at the same time, In addition, before the competition, the stress of the taekwondo athletes increases and lose weight quickly, In this context, the maintenance of desirable psychological states and success in Taekwondo requires a set of specific psychological factors, such as positive perfectionism and psychological skills. Therefore the aim of this research was to survey the relationship between Sport perfectionism and mental skills in Taekwondo Athletes. Present study research method was descriptive – correlational, Statistic population was included all of from Iranian Taekwondo athletes participated in country championship competition. Samples were 110 males with average age of (23/60 ± 5/84) selected based on random sampling, and completed the Scales of perfectionism and mental skills. The data was analyzed by Pearson correlation and multiple regression (inward method) tests. The results of Pearson correlation revealed that positive perfectionism was positively associated with mental skills of foundation, psychosomatic and cognition, and Negative perfectionism had the negative correlation with these mental skills (p < 0/01). Regression analysis showed that positive and negative perfectionism dimensions predict 40 percent of total mental skills variance (p < 0/05). According to the findings, it seems that dimensions of perfectionism have an important role in selecting mental skills and the level of skills which every Taekwondo Athletes uses is correlated with these dimensions.


1. Mohebi M, Zarei S, Sohbatiha M. The Relationship between Emotion Regulation Strategies and Mental Toughness in Elite Taekwondo Athletes. Sport Psycho;ogy Studess. 2016 autem; 21(6): 29-42. (In Persion)
2.Crocker PR, Gaudreau P, Mosewich AD, Kljajic K. Perfectionism and the stress process in intercollegiate athletes: Examining the 2× 2 model of perfectionism in sport competition. International Journal of Sport Psychology. 2014 Jul 1;45(4):61-84.
3.Hill AP, Madigan DJ. A short review of perfectionism in sport, dance and exercise: out with the old, in with the 2× 2. Current opinion in psychology. 2017 Aug 1;16:72-7.
4.Hill AP, Curran T. Multidimensional perfectionism and burnout: A meta-analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review. 2016 Aug;20(3):269-88.
5.Stoeber J. The dual nature of perfectionism in sports: Relationships with emotion, motivation, and performance. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2011 Sep 1;4(2):128-45.
6.Suárez‑Cadenas1ABCD E, Sretković2ABCD T, Perales3AD JC, Petrović2AD J, Sterkowicz‑Przybycień4AD K, Batez5AD M, Drid5ABDE P. Mental toughness and perfectionism in judo: differences by achievement and age. The relation between constructs.
7.Jensen SN, Ivarsson A, Fallby J, Dankers S, Elbe AM. Depression in Danish and Swedish elite football players and its relation to perfectionism and anxiety. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2018 May 1;36:147-55.
8.Abolghasemi A, Kiyamrathi A, Eskandari P. The relationship of perfectionism, task- orientation and competitive anxiety with sport performance in taekwondo. Journal of Motor Behavior and Psychology. 2010 Mar :4: 287-267. (In Persion)
9.Madigan DJ, Stoeber J, Forsdyke D, Dayson M, Passfield L. Perfectionism predicts injury in junior athletes: Preliminary evidence from a prospective study. Journal of sports sciences. 2018 Mar 4;36(5):545-50.
10.Larkin P, O’Connor D, Williams AM. Perfectionism and sport-specific engagement in elite youth soccer players. Journal of sports sciences. 2016 Jul 17;34(14):1305-10.
11. Ivanović M, Milosavljević S, Ivanović U. Perfectionism, anxiety in sport, and sport achievement in adolescence. Sport Science. 2015;8(1):35-42.
12.Lizmore MR, Dunn JG, Dunn JC. Perfectionistic strivings, perfectionistic concerns, and reactions to poor personal performances among intercollegiate athletes. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2017 Nov 1;33:75-84.
13.Mohebi M, Zandi GH, Nazaritaba N, Zarei S. The Relationship between Perfectionism and Mental Toughness in martial arts. Journal of Psychological Science. 2018 Mar; 17(65): 139-153. (In Persion)
14.  Flett GL, Hewitt PL. The perils of perfectionism in sports and exercise. Current directions in psychological science. 2005 Feb;14(1):14-8.
15.Sellars PA, Evans L, Thomas O. The effects of perfectionism in elite sport: Experiences of unhealthy perfectionists. The Sport Psychologist. 2016 Sep;30(3):219-30.
16.Lim T, O’Sullivan DM. Case Study of Mental Skills Training for a Taekwondo Olympian. Journal of human kinetics. 2016 Apr 1;50(1):235-45.
17.Mohebi M. Surveying the psychological profile of successful Iranian taekwondo athletes [MSc]. Tehran: Tehran University. 2014: 50-70. (In Persian)
18.Magnúsdóttir ÍM. Athletes mental skills and stress factors: in the preparation of competing at the Olympic Games [Doctoral dissertation]. BSc Psychology degree, Reykjavík University. 2017: 4-16.
19.Atarodi M, & Kareshki H. Role of Components of Perfectionism and Goal Orientations in prediction of Self-Regulation in Students. JSR. 2013 Mar; 14(52): 100-108. (In Persion)
20.Hall HK, Hill AP, Appleton PR. Perfectionism: A foundation for sporting excellence or an uneasy pathway toward purgatory? In G. C. Roberts & D. C. Treasure, Advances in Motivation in Sport and Exercise, Ill,IL: Human Kinetics. 2012. pp. 129-168
21.Weinberg RS, Gould D. Foundations of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6E: Human Kinetics. 2014. P.33.
22.Nordin-Bates SM, Cumming J, Aways D, Sharp L. Imagining yourself dancing to perfection? Correlates of perfectionism among ballet and contemporary dancers. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. 2011 Mar;5(1):58-76.
23.Farrokhi A, Aghasi Brojeni S, Motesharee E, Farahani A. The Relationship and Comparison between Perfectionism andMood States of Team and Individual Sports Athletes. 2012; 2 (3) :111-123 URL: (In Persion)
24.Alam S, Rafiei S, Kashizadeh M Relationship between Perfectionism, Competitive Anxiety and Sport Deterioration among Taekwondo Men of Premier League. Sport Psychology Study. 2016 Mar; 5 (15):65-78. (In Persion)
25.Gong X, Fletcher KL, Paulson SE. Perfectionism and emotional intelligence: A test of the 2× 2 model of perfectionism. Personality and Individual Differences. 2017 Feb 1;106:71-6.
26.Riahi Farsani L, Farrokhi A, Farahani A, Shamsipour B. Effect of Emotional Intelligence Training on Mental Skills of Athlete Teenagers. Development and motor learning. 2013 ;4(5): 25-40.‎ (In Persion)
27.Miçoogullari BO, Ekmekçi R. Evaluation of a Psychological Skill Training Program on Mental Toughness and Psychological Wellbeing for Professional Soccer Players. Universal Journal of Educational Research. 2017;5(12):2312-9.
28.Dubnov-Raz G, Mashiach-Arazi Y, Arieli R, Raz R, Constantini NW. Eating attitudes and pre-competition rapid weight loss in young taekwondo fighters. Harefuah. 2016 Jun;155(6):343-7.
29.Maloney M, Renshaw I, Headrick J, Martin DT, Farrow D. Taekwondo fighting in training does not simulate the affective and cognitive demands of competition: Implications for behaviour and transfer. Frontiers in psychology. 2018;9:25.
30.Karimian H, TorkFar A, Refahi Z. The relationship between cognitive and somatic anxiety with the perfectionism in the combat athletes of the Shiraz City. Advances in Environmental Biology. 2014 Jan 1:301-6.
31.Estevan I, Álvarez O, Castillo I. Autoeficacia percibida y rendimiento técnico-táctico en taekwondistas universitarios. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte. 2016 Jul 22;16(2):51-64.
32.Parnabas V, Parnabas J, Parnabas AM. The Influence of Mental Imagery Techniques on Sport Performance among Taekwondo Athletes. European Academic Research. 2015:2286-4822.
33.Salehian MH, Moghaddam J, & Ghiami RA. Nezhad, L.B., Vusughi, V., & Borhan, S. (). The comparison of mental skills of elite and non-elite boys individual athletics in region 13 of Islamic Azad University. International Journal of Sport Studies. 2015 Jan; 4(1): 32-36.
34.Zandi HG, Mohebi M. Investigating distinctive psychological characteristics of successful and unsuccessful elite Iranian Taekwondo athletes. Journal of the International Association for Taekwondo Research (JIATR). 2016 May ;3(1):11-8.
35.Mohebi M, Zarei S. Comparison the dimensions of sport perfectionism between elite and amateur taekwondo athlits, 6th International Conference on Psychology and Social Sciences, Tehran, Seminars of Mehr Ishraq;2016, (In Persion)
36.Zarei S, Zandi GH, Nazaritaba N, Mohebi M. The Relationship between Perfectionism and Emotion Regulation in Elite Taekwondo Athletes. Journal of Psychological Science. 2018 Summer; 17(66): 271-284. (In Persion)
37.Zeidabadi R, Rezaie F, Motashareie E. Psychometric properties and normalization of persian version of ottawa mental skills assessment tools (OMSAT-3). Sport Psychology Review. 2014 Jun 15;3(7):63-82.
38.Ståhlberg RS. The Relationships Between Perfectionism, Achievement Goal Orientations, and Goal Setting [MSc]. University of Helsinki. 2015. P 1-10.
39.Beal MA. How Does Goal Setting Impact Intrinsic Motivation And Does It Help Lead To Enhanced Learning At The Kindergarten Level? [MSc]. School of Education Student Capstone. 2017
40.Vink K, Raudsepp L. Perfectionistic strivings, motivation and engagement in among sport-specific activities adolescent team athletes. Perceptual and motor skills. 2018 Jan 1:0031512518765833.
41.Oliveira LP, Vissoci JR, Nascimento Junior JR, Ferreira L, Vieira LF, Silva PN, Cheuczuk F, Vieira JL. The impact of perfectionism traits on motivation in high-performance soccer athletes. Revista Brasileira de Cineantropometria & Desempenho Humano. 2015 Oct;17(5):601-11.
42.Mohammadzadeh, H, Ebrahimi S, and Sami, S. The The relationship between Perfectionism, Stress and Burnout swming coaches, 2012 4(1), 129-139 (In Persion)
43.Dunkley DM, Solomon-Krakus S, Moroz M. Personal standards and self-critical perfectionism and distress: Stress, coping, and perceived social support as mediators and moderators. InPerfectionism, health, and well-being 2016. Springer, Cham. pp. 157-176.
44.Gustafsson H, Sagar SS, Stenling A. Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport. Scandinavian journal of medicine & science in sports. 2017 Dec 1;27(12):2091-102.
45.Madigan DJ, Stoeber J, Passfield L. Perfectionism and burnout in junior athletes: A three-month longitudinal study. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology. 2015 Jun;37(3):305-15.
46.Madigan DJ, Stoeber J, Passfield L. Motivation mediates the perfectionism–burnout relationship: A three-wave longitudinal study with junior athletes. Journal of sport and exercise psychology. 2016 Aug;38(4):341-54.
47.  Yosefi J. The Relationship between Emotional Regulation and Positive and Negative Emotions with Psychological Well-being of Students. J Neyshabur Univ Med Sci. 2015 May 1;3(1):66-74.
48.Kamali IS, &. Abolmaali AKh. Predicting cognitive emotion regulation strategies according to family communication processes and perfectionism in high school adolescent girlsJournal of Applied Psychology. 2016 Dec; 3(39): 414-434. (In Persion)
49.Madigan DJ, Hill AP, Anstiss PA, Mallinson-Howard SH, Kumar S. Perfectionism and training distress in junior athletes: The mediating role of coping tendencies. European journal of sport science. 2018 Apr 4:1-9.
50.Correia ME. Fear of Failure and Perfectionism in Sport. Cuadernos de Psicología del Deporte. 2018 Jan 1;18(1):161-72.
51.Mohammadzadeh A, Hiagh AK, Vahedi M. The Comparison of Perfectionism Components among Patients with Obsessive-Compulsive, Major Depression Disorders, and Normal People. Journal of Fasa University of Medical Sciences. 2017 Jan 1;6(4):512-21. (In Persion)
52.Burns LR, Fedewa BA. Cognitive styles: Links with perfectionistic thinking. Personality and Individual Differences. 2005 Jan 1;38(1):103-13.
53.Salehi H, Hsami M, Movahedi A R. Reducing the sources of attention and improving the function under pressure in a sensory motor homework. Motor behavior. 2013 Jan; 5 (13): 109-124. (In Persion)
54.Macedo A, Marques M, Pereira AT. Perfectionism and psychological distress: A review of the cognitive factors. International Journal of Clinical Neurosciences and Mental Health. 2014;1(6):1-0.
55.Mahmoudzadeh R, Mohammadkhani S. Perfectionism and Academic Procrastination: The mediating role of rumination. CPAP. 2016 Jan 14 (1) :125-134 (In Persion)
56.Weiner BA, Carton JS. Avoidant coping: A mediator of maladaptive perfectionism and test anxiety. Personality and Individual Differences. 2012 Apr 1;52(5):632-6.
57.Ahmadian Vargahan F, Gharraee B, Atef Vahid MK, Habibi M. The role of perfectionism dimensions and emotion regulation strategies in predicting the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms of university students. Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Clinical Psychology. 2014 Aug 15;20(2):153-61. (In Persion)
58.Núñez P, Garcia M. Relationship between performance and anxiety in sports: a systematic review. RETOS-Neuvas Tendencias en Educacion Fisica, Deporte y Recreacion. 2017(32):172-7.
59.Sirois FM, Molnar DS, Hirsch JK. A Meta‐analytic and Conceptual Update on the Associations Between Procrastination and Multidimensional Perfectionism. European Journal of Personality. 2017 Mar 1;31(2):137-59.
60.DiBartolo PM, Frost RO, Chang P, LaSota M, Grills AE. Shedding light on the relationship between personal standards and psychopathology: The case for contingent self-worth. Journal of Rational-Emotive and Cognitive-Behavior Therapy. 2004 Dec 1;22(4):237-50.