Document Type : Research Paper

Authors

1 Ph.D Student, Motor Behavior , Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, University of Tabriz, Iran

2 professor, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, University Of Tehran, Iran

3 Assistant Professor, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, University Of Tehran, Iran

4 Ph.D Student, Sport Psychology, Faculty of physical education and sport sciences, University Of Tehran, Iran

Abstract

Abstract
The present study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of two different methods to enhance free throw shooting among young basketball players. One method is based on mindfulness(MSPE) and the other is based on mental imagery(MI). This is a semi-experimental study and in terms of data collection, the design of the study is experimental with pre-test, post-test and a control group. Statistical population consisted of young basketball players in Tehran from whom 60 players were selected through convenience sampling and put into the following three groups: mindfulness group, mental imagery group and control group. Statistical analyses were presented in two sections: descriptive statistics and inferential statistics. Descriptive statistics included participants’ characteristics, distribution of data and the variables’ mean and standard deviation. Shapiro-Wilk test was also used to determine whether the data were naturally occurring. Then, the data were analyzed through inferential statistics using paired-samples T-Test, ANOVA, Leven’s Test, Games-Howell Test and Bonferroni post hoc Test to test the hypotheses. Significance level of the study was set at 0.05. The results obtained from the pre-test and post-test of both mindfulness and mental imagery groups showed the participants’ performance was significant with mean differences of 4.15 and -2.55 respectively. Also, the final findings of the study indicated that treatment in mindfulness group was more effective than that of mental imagery group, in improving free throw shooting (P=0.2).
Key words: basketball, Free throw, Mindfulness, Mental imagery, Sport performance

Keywords

  1. Weinberg, R., J. Butt, and B. Culp, Coaches' views of mental toughness and how it is built. International journal of sport and exercise psychology, 2011. 9(2): p. 156-172.
  2. Ie, A., C.T. Ngnoumen, and E.J. Langer, The Wiley Blackwell handbook of mindfulness. 2014: John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Bishop, S.R., What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosomatic medicine, 2002. 64(1): p. 71-83.
  4. Cardaciotto, L., Assessing mindfulness: The development of a bi-dimensional measure of awareness and acceptance. 2005, Drexel University.
  5. Kabat-Zinn, J., L. Lipworth, and R. Burney, The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of behavioral medicine, 1985. 8(2): p. 163-190.
  6. Gardner, F.L. and Z.E. Moore, A mindfulness-acceptance-commitment-based approach to athletic performance enhancement: Theoretical considerations. Behavior therapy, 2004. 35(4): p. 707-723.
  7. Repta, V., Pathways to Well Being: The Influence of Mindfulness on Stress, Appraisals, and Coping. 2012, Carleton University Ottawa, Canada© 2011.
  8. Moore, A. and P. Malinowski, Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and cognition, 2009. 18(1): p. 176-186.
  9. Marlatt, G.A. and K. Witkiewitz, Harm reduction approaches to alcohol use: Health promotion, prevention, and treatment. Addictive behaviors, 2002. 27(6): p. 867-886.
  10. Gardner, F.L. and Z.E. Moore, A mindfulness-acceptance-commitment-based approach to athletic performance enhancement: Theoretical considerations. Behavior therapy, 2004. 35(4): p. 707-723.
  11. Edwards, M., et al., Effects of a mindfulness group on Latino adolescent students: Examining levels of perceived stress, mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological symptoms. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 2014. 39(2): p. 145-163.
  12. Ashrafi, S.V.S. and R. Hemayattalab, A comparison of elite and non-elite athletes' sport imagery ability. International Journal of Sport Studies, 2015. 5(4): p. 488-491.
  13. Epstein, M.L., The relationship of mental imagery and mental rehearsal to performance of a motor task. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1980. 2(21): p. 1-220.
  14. Driskell, J.E., C. Copper, and A. Moran, Does mental practice enhance performance? Journal of applied psychology, 1994. 79(4): p. 4
  15. Di Vesta, F.J., G. Ingersoll, and P. Sunshine, A factor analysis of imagery tests. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1971. 10(5): p. 471-479.
  16. Araujo, D. and K. Davids, Ecological approaches to cognition and action in sport and exercise: Ask not only what you do, but where you do it. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 2009. 40(1): p. 5.
  17. Andersen, M.B., Doing sport psychology. 2000: Human Kinetics.
  18. Gold, P.B., et al., Randomized trial of supported employment integrated with assertive community treatment for rural adults with severe mental Schizophrenia bulletin, 2006. 32(2): p. 378-395.
  19. Williams, D.M., E.S. Anderson, and R.A. Winett, A review of the outcome expectancy construct in physical activity research. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2005. 29(1): p. 70-79.
  20. Williams, A., C.M. Janelle, and K. Davids, Constraints on the search for visual information in sport. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2004. 2(3): p. 301-318.
  21. Le Lobmeyer, D. and E. Wasserman, Preliminaries to free throw shooting: Superstitious behavior. Journal of Sport Behavior, 1986. 9(2): p. 70.
  22. Gardner, F.L. and Z.E. Moore, The psychology of enhancing human performance: The mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) approach. 2007: Springer Publishing Company.
  23. Kee, Y.H. and C.J. Wang, Relationships between mindfulness, flow dispositions and mental skills adoption: A cluster analytic approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2008. 9(4): p. 393-411.
  24. Kabat‐Zinn, J., Mindfulness‐based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical psychology: Science and practice, 2003. 10(2): p. 144-156.
  25. Baer, R.A., Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical psychology: Science and practice, 2003. 10(2): p. 125-143.
  26. Winters, E.R., R.L. Petosa, and T.E. Charlton, Using social cognitive theory to explain discretionary,“leisure-time” physical exercise among high school students. Journal of adolescent health, 2003. 32(6): p. 436-442.
  27. Shapiro, S.L., K.W. Brown, and G.M. Biegel, Teaching self-care to caregivers: effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 2007. 1(2): p. 105.
  28. Snider, D., Examining the Effects of Mindfulness Training on Executive Functioning in Older Adults. 2011.
  29. Hargus, E., et al., Effects of mindfulness on meta-awareness and specificity of describing prodromal symptoms in suicidal depression. Emotion, 2010. 10(1): p. 34.
  30. Ciesla, J.A., et al., Dispositional mindfulness moderates the effects of stress among adolescents: rumination as a mediator. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 2012. 41(6): p. 760-770.
  31. Craft, L.L., et al., The relationship between the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and sport performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2003. 25(1): p. 44-65.
  32. Le Lobmeyer, D. and E. Wasserman, Preliminaries to free throw shooting: Superstitious behavior. Journal of Sport Behavior, 1986. 9(2): 70.
  33. Ivtzan I, Hart R. Mindfulness scholarship and interventions: A review. Mindfulness and performance. 2016:3-28.
  34. Baltzell AL, Chipman K, Hayden L, Bowman C. Qualitative study of MMTS: Coaches’ experience. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 2015;7(3):5-20.
  35. Baltzell AL, McCarthy JM. Langerian mindfulness and optimal sport performance. InCritical mindfulness 2016 (pp. 159-171). Springer, Cham.
  36. Biegel GM, Chang K, Garrett A, Edwards M. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for teens. InMindfulness-based treatment approaches 2014 Jan 1 (pp. 189-212). Academic Press.
  37. Baltzell, A. and V.L. Akhtar, Mindfulness Meditation Training for Sport (MMTS) intervention: Impact of MMTS with Division I female athletes. The Journal of Happiness and Well-being, 2014. 2(2): p. 160-173.
  38. Bishop, S.R., What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosomatic medicine, 2002. 64(1): p. 71-83.
  39. Cathcart S, McGregor M, Groundwater E. Mindfulness and flow in elite athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. 2014 Jun 1;8(2):119-41.
  40. Edwards, M., et al., Effects of a mindfulness group on Latino adolescent students: Examining levels of perceived stress, mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological symptoms. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 2014. 39(2): p. 145-163.
  41. Galantino, M.L., et al., Association of psychological and physiological measures of stress in health‐care professionals during an 8‐week mindfulness meditation program: mindfulness in practice. Stress and health, 2005. 21(4): p. 255-261.
  42. Kaufman, Keith A., Carol R. Glass, and Diane B. Arnkoff. "Evaluation of Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes." Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology 3.4 (2009): 334-356.
  43. Alfonso, José P., et al. "Combined goal management training and mindfulness meditation improve executive functions and decision-making performance in abstinent polysubstance abusers." Drug and alcohol dependence 117.1 (2011): 78-81.
  44. Chambers, R., B.C.Y. Lo, and N.B. Allen, The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive therapy and research, 2008. 32(3): p. 303-322.
  45. Hargus, E., et al., Effects of mindfulness on meta-awareness and specificity of describing prodromal symptoms in suicidal depression. Emotion, 2010. 10(1): p. 34.
  46. Western and Eastern Perspectives. The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness, 2014: p. 881-897.
  47. Bahrami, Alireza. "The effect of mental imagery on selected male physical education students' basketball shot in Arak University." Olympic quarterly, 2000. 8(15): 85-92 [In Persian].
  48. Hemayattalab,R. Sheykh,M. Movahedi, A,R. Asad, M,R. "The effect of pre/post mental training on learning a perceptual-motor skill with emphasis on internal and external imagery". RESEARCH ON SPORT SCIENCE, 2007. 14(4): 139-152 [In Persian].
  49. Sharifzadeh, V. 2008," The effectiveness of nental imagery on athletic success " Master Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Roodehen Branch [In Persian].
  1. Weinberg, R., J. Butt, and B. Culp, Coaches' views of mental toughness and how it is built. International journal of sport and exercise psychology, 2011. 9(2): p. 156-172.
  2. Ie, A., C.T. Ngnoumen, and E.J. Langer, The Wiley Blackwell handbook of mindfulness. 2014: John Wiley & Sons.
  3. Bishop, S.R., What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosomatic medicine, 2002. 64(1): p. 71-83.
  4. Cardaciotto, L., Assessing mindfulness: The development of a bi-dimensional measure of awareness and acceptance. 2005, Drexel University.
  5. Kabat-Zinn, J., L. Lipworth, and R. Burney, The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of behavioral medicine, 1985. 8(2): p. 163-190.
  6. Gardner, F.L. and Z.E. Moore, A mindfulness-acceptance-commitment-based approach to athletic performance enhancement: Theoretical considerations. Behavior therapy, 2004. 35(4): p. 707-723.
  7. Repta, V., Pathways to Well Being: The Influence of Mindfulness on Stress, Appraisals, and Coping. 2012, Carleton University Ottawa, Canada© 2011.
  8. Moore, A. and P. Malinowski, Meditation, mindfulness and cognitive flexibility. Consciousness and cognition, 2009. 18(1): p. 176-186.
  9. Marlatt, G.A. and K. Witkiewitz, Harm reduction approaches to alcohol use: Health promotion, prevention, and treatment. Addictive behaviors, 2002. 27(6): p. 867-886.
  10. Gardner, F.L. and Z.E. Moore, A mindfulness-acceptance-commitment-based approach to athletic performance enhancement: Theoretical considerations. Behavior therapy, 2004. 35(4): p. 707-723.
  11. Edwards, M., et al., Effects of a mindfulness group on Latino adolescent students: Examining levels of perceived stress, mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological symptoms. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 2014. 39(2): p. 145-163.
  12. Ashrafi, S.V.S. and R. Hemayattalab, A comparison of elite and non-elite athletes' sport imagery ability. International Journal of Sport Studies, 2015. 5(4): p. 488-491.
  13. Epstein, M.L., The relationship of mental imagery and mental rehearsal to performance of a motor task. Journal of Sport Psychology, 1980. 2(21): p. 1-220.
  14. Driskell, J.E., C. Copper, and A. Moran, Does mental practice enhance performance? Journal of applied psychology, 1994. 79(4): p. 4
  15. Di Vesta, F.J., G. Ingersoll, and P. Sunshine, A factor analysis of imagery tests. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 1971. 10(5): p. 471-479.
  16. Araujo, D. and K. Davids, Ecological approaches to cognition and action in sport and exercise: Ask not only what you do, but where you do it. International Journal of Sport Psychology, 2009. 40(1): p. 5.
  17. Andersen, M.B., Doing sport psychology. 2000: Human Kinetics.
  18. Gold, P.B., et al., Randomized trial of supported employment integrated with assertive community treatment for rural adults with severe mental Schizophrenia bulletin, 2006. 32(2): p. 378-395.
  19. Williams, D.M., E.S. Anderson, and R.A. Winett, A review of the outcome expectancy construct in physical activity research. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 2005. 29(1): p. 70-79.
  20. Williams, A., C.M. Janelle, and K. Davids, Constraints on the search for visual information in sport. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2004. 2(3): p. 301-318.
  21. Le Lobmeyer, D. and E. Wasserman, Preliminaries to free throw shooting: Superstitious behavior. Journal of Sport Behavior, 1986. 9(2): p. 70.
  22. Gardner, F.L. and Z.E. Moore, The psychology of enhancing human performance: The mindfulness-acceptance-commitment (MAC) approach. 2007: Springer Publishing Company.
  23. Kee, Y.H. and C.J. Wang, Relationships between mindfulness, flow dispositions and mental skills adoption: A cluster analytic approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 2008. 9(4): p. 393-411.
  24. Kabat‐Zinn, J., Mindfulness‐based interventions in context: past, present, and future. Clinical psychology: Science and practice, 2003. 10(2): p. 144-156.
  25. Baer, R.A., Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical psychology: Science and practice, 2003. 10(2): p. 125-143.
  26. Winters, E.R., R.L. Petosa, and T.E. Charlton, Using social cognitive theory to explain discretionary,“leisure-time” physical exercise among high school students. Journal of adolescent health, 2003. 32(6): p. 436-442.
  27. Shapiro, S.L., K.W. Brown, and G.M. Biegel, Teaching self-care to caregivers: effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction on the mental health of therapists in training. Training and Education in Professional Psychology, 2007. 1(2): p. 105.
  28. Snider, D., Examining the Effects of Mindfulness Training on Executive Functioning in Older Adults. 2011.
  29. Hargus, E., et al., Effects of mindfulness on meta-awareness and specificity of describing prodromal symptoms in suicidal depression. Emotion, 2010. 10(1): p. 34.
  30. Ciesla, J.A., et al., Dispositional mindfulness moderates the effects of stress among adolescents: rumination as a mediator. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 2012. 41(6): p. 760-770.
  31. Craft, L.L., et al., The relationship between the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 and sport performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2003. 25(1): p. 44-65.
  32. Le Lobmeyer, D. and E. Wasserman, Preliminaries to free throw shooting: Superstitious behavior. Journal of Sport Behavior, 1986. 9(2): 70.
  33. Ivtzan I, Hart R. Mindfulness scholarship and interventions: A review. Mindfulness and performance. 2016:3-28.
  34. Baltzell AL, Chipman K, Hayden L, Bowman C. Qualitative study of MMTS: Coaches’ experience. Journal of Multidisciplinary Research. 2015;7(3):5-20.
  35. Baltzell AL, McCarthy JM. Langerian mindfulness and optimal sport performance. InCritical mindfulness 2016 (pp. 159-171). Springer, Cham.
  36. Biegel GM, Chang K, Garrett A, Edwards M. Mindfulness-based stress reduction for teens. InMindfulness-based treatment approaches 2014 Jan 1 (pp. 189-212). Academic Press.
  37. Baltzell, A. and V.L. Akhtar, Mindfulness Meditation Training for Sport (MMTS) intervention: Impact of MMTS with Division I female athletes. The Journal of Happiness and Well-being, 2014. 2(2): p. 160-173.
  38. Bishop, S.R., What do we really know about mindfulness-based stress reduction? Psychosomatic medicine, 2002. 64(1): p. 71-83.
  39. Cathcart S, McGregor M, Groundwater E. Mindfulness and flow in elite athletes. Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology. 2014 Jun 1;8(2):119-41.
  40. Edwards, M., et al., Effects of a mindfulness group on Latino adolescent students: Examining levels of perceived stress, mindfulness, self-compassion, and psychological symptoms. The Journal for Specialists in Group Work, 2014. 39(2): p. 145-163.
  41. Galantino, M.L., et al., Association of psychological and physiological measures of stress in health‐care professionals during an 8‐week mindfulness meditation program: mindfulness in practice. Stress and health, 2005. 21(4): p. 255-261.
  42. Kaufman, Keith A., Carol R. Glass, and Diane B. Arnkoff. "Evaluation of Mindful Sport Performance Enhancement (MSPE): A new approach to promote flow in athletes." Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology 3.4 (2009): 334-356.
  43. Alfonso, José P., et al. "Combined goal management training and mindfulness meditation improve executive functions and decision-making performance in abstinent polysubstance abusers." Drug and alcohol dependence 117.1 (2011): 78-81.
  44. Chambers, R., B.C.Y. Lo, and N.B. Allen, The impact of intensive mindfulness training on attentional control, cognitive style, and affect. Cognitive therapy and research, 2008. 32(3): p. 303-322.
  45. Hargus, E., et al., Effects of mindfulness on meta-awareness and specificity of describing prodromal symptoms in suicidal depression. Emotion, 2010. 10(1): p. 34.
  46. Western and Eastern Perspectives. The Wiley Blackwell Handbook of Mindfulness, 2014: p. 881-897.
  47. Bahrami, Alireza. "The effect of mental imagery on selected male physical education students' basketball shot in Arak University." Olympic quarterly, 2000. 8(15): 85-92 [In Persian].
  48. Hemayattalab,R. Sheykh,M. Movahedi, A,R. Asad, M,R. "The effect of pre/post mental training on learning a perceptual-motor skill with emphasis on internal and external imagery". RESEARCH ON SPORT SCIENCE, 2007. 14(4): 139-152 [In Persian].
  49. Sharifzadeh, V. 2008," The effectiveness of nental imagery on athletic success " Master Thesis, Islamic Azad University, Roodehen Branch [In Persian].