Document Type : Research Paper


1 MSc, Department of Exercise Physiology and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Exercise Physiology and Corrective Exercises, Faculty of Sport Sciences, Urmia University, Urmia, Iran


Introduction: Basic manipulation skills in children are a prerequisite for movement and sports skills in adulthood. The aim of this study was to compare basic manipulation skills between children with upper cross syndrome and healthy children.
Methodology: The statistical population of the study included two groups of healthy boys aged 10-11 years and children with upper cross syndrome in Piranshahr. According to the inclusion criteria, 45 healthy students and 45 students with upper cross syndrome were selected by random and purposive sampling. The Goniometer-pro android app was used to measure kyphosis, the image J program was used to evaluate the head and shoulders forward, and the Ulrich test (TGMD 3) was used to assess the basic manipulation skills. Descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation were used to describe the data and One-way ANOVA was used to compare the two groups.
Results: There was a significant difference between the basic manipulation skills of children with upper cross syndrome and healthy children (p <0.05). In this regard, healthy children in all skills of manipulation, were better than children with upper cross syndrome.
Conclusion: Based on the findings, upper cross syndrome abnormality, which is caused by imbalance between agonist and antagonist muscles, causes limitation of movement and weakness in basic manipulation skills of children, so it is necessary to pay attention to these abnormalities.


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