The Effect of Knowledge of Result (KR) Feedback with Different Frequencies on Learning of a Targeting Skill in Children with Autism

Document Type : Research Paper


Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz


Feedback is one of the most important variables that affects the performance of motor learning and the way of implementing skills and has an important role in motor control and motor skill acquisition. This study aimed at evaluating the acquisition and retention of new skills in children with autism in augmented feedbacks with various frequencies. Study method was semi-experimental and study design was pretest–posttest. The retention test was carried out with three feedback groups (0%, 50% and 100%). The study population consisted of 6-8-year-old male children with autism in Ahvaz city. 21 subjects were selected through available and purposive sampling method as the sample of the study and were randomly divided into three groups. The subjects' task was to throw a tennis ball over their shoulders towards a target drawn on the ground. In the acquisition phase, subjects threw 60 tennis balls. Group 0% did not receive any feedback, group 50% received feedback in half of their efforts and group 100% received feedback in all their efforts.  24 hours after the acquisition phase, retention test was performed in 10 trials. After checking the data normality and variance equality, data were analyzed by analysis of variance with repeated measures, ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test. The results showed a significant difference in the acquisition and retention stages among the three groups (P=0.001). Group 100% outperformed both in the acquisition and retention phases. It is generally suggested that in the skill learning process, children with autism benefit from augmented feedback with high frequency.


  • Receive Date: 10 March 2013
  • Revise Date: 09 December 2013
  • Accept Date: 10 July 2013
  • First Publish Date: 21 April 2014