نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی Released under CC BY-NC 4.0 license I Open Access I


1 . دانشجوی دکتری، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه رازی، کرمانشاه، ایران

2 . استادیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران

3 دانشیار، گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکدة تربیت بدنی و علوم ورزشی، دانشگاه تهران، تهران، ایران


پژوهش حاضر با هدف مقایسة مهارت‌های حرکتی و شاخص تودة بدنی دانش‌آموزان پسر 7 تا 10 سال با و بدون اعتیاد به اینترنت انجام گرفت. شرکت‌کنندگان در پژوهش 150 دانش‌آموز دارای اعتیاد و 150 دانش‌آموز بدون اعتیاد به اینترنت بودند. بعد از گرفتن رضایت‌نامه از والدین و ثبت اطلاعات شخصی دانش‌آموزان در ابتدا با استفاده از پرسشنامۀ اعتیاد به اینترنت کمبیرلی یانگ گروه‌ها مشخص شدند. با استفاده از قدسنج و ترازو، شاخص تودة بدنی شرکت‌کنندگان ثبت شد و سپس با استفاده از آزمون برونینکز- ازورتسکی مهارت‌های حرکتی شرکت‌کنندگان ارزیابی شد. برای دسته‌بندی اطلاعات از شاخص‌های مرکزی و پراکندگی در بخش آمار توصیفی و برای تجزیه‌وتحلیل داده‌ها از آزمون کولموگروف اسمیرنوف و t مستقل در بخش آمار استنباطی استفاده شد. تمام تحلیل‌های پژوهش در سطح معنا‌داری 05/0 P< بررسی شد. نتایج نشان داد که بین مهارت‌های درشت و ظریف، تبحر حرکتی و همچنین شاخص تودة بدنی دانش‌آموزان با و بدون اعتیاد به اینترنت تفاوت معناداری وجود دارد، به این معنا که کودکان دارای اعتیاد به اینترنت در مهارت‌های حرکتی درشت، ظریف و تبحر حرکتی عملکرد ضعیف‌تری را از خود نشان دادند. همچنین از شاخص تودة بدنی بیشتری برخوردار بودند. اعتیاد به اینترنت ممکن است با چاقی و عملکرد ضعیف در مهارت‌های حرکتی درشت همراه باشد، بنابراین توصیه می‌شود برای پیشگیری، اقدامات لازم در این زمینه انجام گیرد.


عنوان مقاله [English]

A Comparison of Motor Skills and Body Mass Index of Children with/without Internet Addiction

نویسندگان [English]

  • Mehdi Takhtaei 1
  • Davood Homanian 2
  • Mahmoud Sheikh 3

1 PhD Student, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Razi, Kermanshah, Iran

2 Assistant Professor, Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

3 Associate Professor, Faculty of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran

چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to compare motor skills and body mass index of male students (7 to 10 years old) with and without internet addiction. Participants included 150 students with internet addiction and 150 students without internet addiction. After their parents filled out the consent forms and the students' personal information was recorded, the groups firstly were identified by the Kimberly Young Internet Addiction Questionnaire. Body mass index of participants were recorded by stadiometer and scale, and then their motor skills were assessed by the Bruininks - Oseretsky test. To classify the data, measures of central tendency and dispersion in the descriptive statistics were used. To analyze the data, the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and independent t test were used in the inferential statistics. All research analysis was investigated at the significance level (P<0.05). The results showed significant differences in gross and fine motor skills, motor proficiency as well as body mass index between students with and without internet addiction, that is to say children with internet addiction showed poorer performance in gross and fine motor skills and motor proficiency. Also, they had more body mass index. Internet addiction may be accompanied with obesity and poor performance in gross motor skills. Therefore, it is recommended that the necessary steps should be taken to prevent these problems.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Children
  • internet addiction
  • motor development
  • motor proficiency test
  • obesity
1.   Omoyemiju MA, Popoola BI. Prevalence of internet addiction among students of Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Br J Guid Counc. 2020;1–11.
2.   Wallace P. Internet addiction disorder and youth. EMBO Rep. 2014;15 (1):12–6.
3.   Rosliza AM, Ragubathi MN, MKA MY, Shaharuddin MS. Internet Addiction among Undergraduate Students: Evidence from a Malaysian Public University. IIUM Med J Malaysia. 2018;17 (2).
4.   Li W, O’Brien JE, Snyder SM, Howard MO. Diagnostic criteria for problematic internet use among US university students: A mixed-methods evaluation. PLoS One. 2016;11 (1).
5.   Abshenas E, TAKHTAEI M, Karimizadeh Ardakani M, Naderi Beni M. Comparison of Musculoskeletal Disorders and Pain among the Internet Addicted and non-Addicted Individuals with an Emphasis on Different Levels of Physical Activity. Sci J Rehabil Med [Internet]. 2020; Available from: http://medrehab.sbmu.ac.ir/article_1101166.html
6.   Ghassemzadeh L, Shahraray M, Moradi A. Prevalence of Internet addiction and comparison of Internet addicts and non-addicts in Iranian high schools. CyberPsychology Behav. 2008;11 (6):731–3.
7.   Tabatabaee HR, Rezaianzadeh A, Jamshidi M. Mediators in the Relationship between Internet Addiction and Body Mass Index: A Path Model Approach Using Partial Least Square. J Res Health Sci. 2018;18 (3).
8.   Ahmadi K. Internet addiction among Iranian adolescents: a nationwide study. Acta Med Iran. 2014;467–72.
9.   Alaca N. The impacts of internet addiction on depression, physical activity level and trigger point sensitivity in Turkish university students. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. 2019; (Preprint):1–8.
10.           Khan MA, Shabbir F, Rajput TA. Effect of gender and physical activity on internet addiction in medical students. Pakistan J Med Sci. 2017;33 (1):191.
11.           Kim S-E, Kim J-W, Jee Y-S. Relationship between smartphone addiction and physical activity in Chinese international students in Korea. J Behav Addict. 2015;4 (3):200–5.
12.           Dang AK, Nathan N, Le QNH, Nguyen LH, Nguyen HLT, Nguyen CT, et al. Associations between internet addiction and physical activity among Vietnamese youths and adolescents. Child Youth Serv Rev. 2018;93:36–40.
13.           Mota J, Ribeiro J, Santos MP, Gomes H. Błachnio, A., Przepiórka, A., Gorbaniuk, O., Benvenuti, M., Ciobanu, A. M., Senol-Durak, E...& Popa, C. (2019). Cultural Correlates of Internet Addiction. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 22 (4), 258-263. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2006;18 (1):113–21.
14.           Kautiainen S, Koivusilta L, Lintonen T, Virtanen SM, Rimpelä A. Use of information and communication technology and prevalence of overweight and obesity among adolescents. Int J Obes. 2005;29 (8):925–33.
15.           Lajunen H-R, Keski-Rahkonen A, Pulkkinen L, Rose RJ, Rissanen A, Kaprio J. Are computer and cell phone use associated with body mass index and overweight? A population study among twin adolescents. BMC Public Health. 2007;7 (1):24.
16.           Mistry SK, Puthussery S. Risk factors of overweight and obesity in childhood and adolescence in South Asian countries: a systematic review of the evidence. Public Health. 2015;129 (3):200–9.
17.           Wu C-Y, Lee M-B, Liao S-C, Chang L-R. Risk factors of internet addiction among internet users: an online questionnaire survey. PLoS One. 2015;10 (10).
18.           Organization WH. Public health implications of excessive use of the internet, computers, smartphones and similar electronic devices: meeting report. Found Promot Cancer Res Natl Cancer Res Center, Tokyo, Japan. 2014;27–9.
19.           Garcia CE. Health behavior and use of internet technologies in adolescents (HSBC study results). Lithuanian University of Health Sciences; 2017.
20.           Goodway JD, Ozmun JC, Gallahue DL. Understanding motor development: Infants, children, adolescents, adults. Jones & Bartlett Learning; 2019.
21.           Haywood K, Getchell N. Development of human locomotion. Life Span Mot Dev 6th ed Hum Kinet. 2014;290–306.
22.           Payne VG, Isaacs LD. Human motor development: A lifespan approach. Routledge; 2017.
23.           Cepicka L. Normative data for the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 in 7-yr.-old children in the Czech Republic. Percept Mot Skills. 2010;110 (3_suppl):1048–52.
24.           Modara F, Rezaee-Nour J, Sayehmiri N, Maleki F, Aghakhani N, Sayehmiri K, et al. Prevalence of internet addiction in Iran: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Addict Heal. 2017;9 (4):243.
25.           eimani, M., shirali nia, K. The Role of Family Functions and Process on Internet Addiction among Teenagers. Family Counseling and Psychotherapy 2015; 5 (2): 143-164.[In persian]. No Title.
26.           Young KS, Rogers RC. The relationship between depression and Internet addiction. Cyberpsychology Behav. 1998;1 (1):25–8.
27.           Investigate the Relationship between Accountability and Defensive Styles Internet Addiction of High School Youth in Qazvin In female students. جامعه شناسی آموزش و پرورش ایران. 2020; 12 (2) :108-117.
28.           Guo J, Chen L, Wang X, Liu Y, Chui CHK, He H, et al. The relationship between Internet addiction and depression among migrant children and left-behind children in China. Cyberpsychology, Behav Soc Netw. 2012;15 (11):585–90.
29.           Alavi SS. Psychometric properties of Young internet addiction test. Int J Behav Sci. 2010;4 (3):183–9.
30.           Bruininks-Oseretsky R. Test of motor proficiency: Examiner’s manual. Circ Pines, MN Am Guid Serv. 1978;
31.           Kosari S, Keyhani fatemeh, Hemayat talab R, arabameri elahe. Effect of a Selected Physical Activity Program on the Development of Motor Skills in Attention Deficit /Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Autism (HFA) Children. J Mot Learn Mov [Internet]. 2012;4 (2):45–60. Available from: https://jmlm.ut.ac.ir/article_28985.html
32.           George LX, Elisavet PD. The relation between physical activity and the use of internet in schoolchildren aged 13-15 years old. J J Adv Phys Educ. 2016;1 (1).
33.           Canan F, Yildirim O, Ustunel TY, Sinani G, Ozturk O, Gunes C, et al. 467–The relationship between internet addiction and body mass index in turkish adolescents. Eur Psychiatry. 2013;28:1.
34.           Koc M, Gulyagci S. Cyberpsychology, behavior, and social networking. Faceb Addict Among Turkish Coll Students Role Psychol Heal Demogr Usage Charact. 2013;16 (4):279–84.
35.           Demetrovics Z, Szeredi B, Rózsa S. The three-factor model of Internet addiction: The development of the Problematic Internet Use Questionnaire. Behav Res Methods. 2008;40 (2):563–74.
36.           Li M, Deng Y, Ren Y, Guo S, He X. Obesity status of middle school students in Xiangtan and its relationship with Internet addiction. Obesity. 2014;22 (2):482–7.
37.           Marshall SJ, Biddle SJH, Gorely T, Cameron N, Murdey I. Relationships between media use, body fatness and physical activity in children and youth: a meta-analysis. Int J Obes. 2004;28 (10):1238–46.
38.           Gámez-Guadix M, Calvete E, Orue I, Las Hayas C. Problematic Internet use and problematic alcohol use from the cognitive–behavioral model: A longitudinal study among adolescents. Addict Behav. 2015;40:109–14.
39.           Bélanger RE, Akre C, Berchtold A, Michaud P-A. A U-shaped association between intensity of Internet use and adolescent health. Pediatrics. 2011;127 (2):e330–5.
40.           Yaghoubi H, yousefi R, Aminzadeh M. The Relationship between Social Activities and Group Sports with the Rate of Addiction to Cyberspace. Sport Psychol Stud [Internet]. 2019 Nov 22;8 (29):203–18. Available from: https://spsyj.ssrc.ac.ir/article_1934.html
41.           Malak MZ, Khalifeh AH, Shuhaiber AH. Prevalence of Internet Addiction and associated risk factors in Jordanian school students. Comput Human Behav. 2017;70:556–63.
42.           Fisher A, Reilly JJ, Kelly LA, Montgomery C, Williamson A, Paton JY, et al. Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2005;37 (4):684–8.
43.           Raudsepp L, Päll P. The relationship between fundamental motor skills and outside-school physical activity of elementary school children. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2006;18 (4):426–35.
44.           Ridgers ND, Stratton G, Fairclough SJ. Physical activity levels of children during school playtime. Sport Med. 2006;36 (4):359–71.
45.           Cooley D, Oakman R, McNaughton L, Ryska T. Fundamental movement patterns in Tasmanian primary school children. Percept Mot Skills. 1997;84 (1):307–16.
46.           Weinstein A, Lejoyeux M. Internett-avhengighet eller overdreven bruk av Internett. Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse. 2010;36 (5):277–83.
47.           Bonetti L, Campbell MA, Gilmore L. The relationship of loneliness and social anxiety with children’s and adolescents’ online communication. Cyberpsychology, Behav Soc Netw. 2010;13 (3):279–85.
48.           Kalivas PW, Volkow ND. The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice. Am J Psychiatry. 2005;162 (8):1403–13.
49.           Goldstein RZ, Volkow ND. Drug addiction and its underlying neurobiological basis: neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal cortex. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159 (10):1642–52.
50.           Volkow ND, Fowler JS, Wang G-J. The addicted human brain: insights from imaging studies. J Clin Invest. 2003;111 (10):1444–51.
51.           Brebner K, Wong TP, Liu L, Liu Y, Campsall P, Gray S, et al. Nucleus accumbens long-term depression and the expression of behavioral sensitization. Science (80- ). 2005;310 (5752):1340–3.
52.           Koob GF, Le Moal M. Addiction and the brain antireward system. Annu Rev Psychol. 2008;59:29–53.
53.           Davis RA. A cognitive-behavioral model of pathological Internet use. Comput Human Behav. 2001;17 (2):187–95.