نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 استادیار دانشگاه هنر، تهران، ایران

2 گروه رفتار حرکتی، دانشکده علوم انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی واحد ساری، ساری، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این مطالعه بررسی نقش عوامل واسطه‌ای تاب‌آوری و حمایت اجتماعی در ارتباط بین فعالیت‌بدنی و پریشانی روان‌شناختی در دوره شیوع ویروس کووید-19 بود. روش پژوهش همبستگی و جامعه آماری شامل تمامی بزرگسالان مرد و زن (18-64 سال) در سطح کشور بود که 1115 نفر به‌عنوان نمونه از بین مردم استان تهران و 10 استان دیگر از 5 منطقه جغرافیایی کشور به‌روش تصادفی انتخاب شدند. فعالیت بدنی با پرسش‌نامه بین‌المللی فعالیت بدنی، پریشانی روان-شناختی با پرسش‌نامه 10 سؤالی کسلر، تاب‌آوری روان‌شناختی با پرسش‌نامه فرم کوتاه کانر و دیویدسون و حمایت اجتماعی ادراک‌شده با پرسش‌نامه حمایت اجتماعی ادراک‌شده زیمت به‌روش بررسی آنلاین مورد ارزیابی قرار گرفت. با استفاده از ضریب همبستگی اسپیرمن روابط میان متغیرهای پژوهش با نرم‌افزار SPSS25 محاسبه ‌گردید. مدل‌یابی معادله‌های ساختاری (SEM) نیز برای آزمودن مدل فرضی در مورد روابط مستقیم و غیرمستقیم بین فعالیت‌بدنی، پریشانی روان‌شناختی، تاب‌آوری و حمایت اجتماعی درک‌شده با استفاده از نرم‌افزار PLS3 استفاده شد. نتایج مدل‌یابی معادله‌های ساختاری نشانگر برازش خوب مدل بود. یافته‌ها ارتباط معکوس معنا‌داری بین فعالیت‌بدنی و پریشانی روان‌شناختی نشان داد (314/0- =β؛001/0≥P) و ضریب مسیر غیرمستقیم فعالیت‌بدنی و پریشانی روان‌شناختی با میانجی‌گری حمایت اجتماعی ادراک‌شده (035/0- =β؛001/0≥P) و تاب‌آوری (057/0- =β؛001/0≥P) معنادار بود. پیشنهاد می‌شود جهت کاهش پریشانی روان‌شناختی در دوره شیوع ویروس کووید-19 از برنامه‌های قابل اجرای فعالیت‌بدنی همزمان با مداخله حمایت اجتماعی ادراک‌شده و تاب‌آوری استفاده شود.

کلیدواژه‌ها

عنوان مقاله [English]

Physical Activity and Psychological Distress during the COVID-19 Lockdown: the Role of Mediators of Resilience and Perceived Social Support

نویسندگان [English]

  • Faezeh Zamanian 1
  • Leila Zameni 2

1 Assistant Professor of Sport Management, University of Art, Tehran, Iran

2 Department of Motor Behavior, Faculty of Humanities, Sari Branch, Islamic Azad University, Sari, Iran

چکیده [English]

The aim of this study was to investigate the role of mediators of resilience and perceived social support in the relationship between physical activity and psychological distress during the Covid-19 virus outbreak. The research method was correlation and the statistical population included Iranian adults (18-64 years) that 1115 male and female were selected as a sample from the people of Tehran and 10 other provinces from 5 geographical regions by random sampling. The International Physical Activity questionnaire, the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale, the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale, and Perceived Social Support was used for data collection. Using Spearman correlation coefficient, the relationships between research variables were calculated using SPSS25 software. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was also used to test the hypothetical model of direct and indirect relationships between physical activity, psychological distress, resilience, and perceived social support using PLS3 software. The results of modeling the structural equations indicated a good fit of the model. Findings showed a significant inverse relationship between physical activity and psychological distress (β = -0.314; P≤ 00 0.001) and indirect pathway coefficient of physical activity and psychological distress mediated by perceived social support (β = -0.35; P≤0.001) and resilience (β =-0.057; P≤0.001) were significant. It is suggested that in order to reduce psychological distress in the period of Covid-19 virus outbreak, feasible physical activity programs be used simultaneously with perceived social support and resilience intervention.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • COVID-19
  • physical Activity
  • psychological distress
  • resilience
  • social support
  1. Li W, Yang Y, Liu Z-H, Zhao Y-J, Zhang Q, Zhang L, et al. Progression of mental health services during the COVID-19 outbreak in China. International journal of biological sciences. 2020;16(10):1732.
  2. Killgore WD, Taylor EC, Cloonan SA, Dailey NS. Psychological Resilience During the COVID-19 Lockdown. Psychiatry Research. 2020:113216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j. psychres.2020.113216
  3. Jahanshahi AA, Dinani MM, Madavani AN, Li J, Zhang SX. The distress of Iranian adults during the Covid-19 pandemic–More distressed than the Chinese and with different predictors. Brain, behavior, and immunity. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.04.081
  4. Zandifar A, Badrfam R. Iranian mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic. Asian journal of psychiatry. 2020;51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.101990
  5. Shahyad S, Mohammadi MT. Psychological impacts of Covid-19 outbreak on mental health status of society individuals: a narrative review. Journal of Military Medicine. 2020;22(2).
  6. Drapeau A, Marchand A, Beaulieu-Prévost D. Epidemiology of psychological distress. Mental illnesses-understanding, prediction and control. 2012;69:105-6.
  7. Uddin R, Burton NW, Khan A. Combined Effects of Physical Inactivity and Sedentary Behaviour on Psychological Distress Among University-Based Young Adults: a One-Year Prospective Study. Psychiatric Quarterly. 2020;91(1):191-202.
  8. Gucciardi DF, Law KH, Guerrero MD, Quested E, Thøgersen-Ntoumani C, Ntoumanis N, et al. Longitudinal relations between psychological distress and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity: A latent change score approach. Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2020;47:101490.
  9. Sfendla A, Hadrya F. Factors associated with psychological distress and physical activity during the COVID-19 pandemic. Health security. 2020;18(6):444-53.
  10. Román-Mata S, Puertas-Molero P, Ubago-Jiménez JL, González-Valero G. Benefits of physical activity and its associations with resilience, emotional intelligence, and psychological distress in university students from Southern Spain. International journal of environmental research and public health. 2020;17(12):4474.
  11. Da Silva MA, Singh-Manoux A, Brunner EJ, Kaffashian S, Shipley MJ, Kivimäki M, et al. Bidirectional association between physical activity and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the Whitehall II study. European journal of epidemiology. 2012;27(7):537-46.
  12. Brunes A, Augestad LB, Gudmundsdottir SL. Personality, physical activity, and symptoms of anxiety and depression: the HUNT study. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology. 2013;48(5):745-56.
  13. Cairney J, Faulkner G, Veldhuizen S, Wade TJ. Changes over time in physical activity and psychological distress among older adults. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2009;54(3):160-9.
  14. De Mello MT, de Aquino Lemos V, Antunes HKM, Bittencourt L, Santos-Silva R, Tufik S. Relationship between physical activity and depression and anxiety symptoms: a population study. Journal of affective disorders. 2013;149(1-3):241-6.
  15. Perales F, Pozo-Cruz Jd, Pozo-Cruz Bd. Impact of physical activity on psychological distress: a prospective analysis of an Australian national sample. American journal of public health. 2014;104(12):e91-e7.
  16. George ES, Kecmanovic M, Meade T, Kolt GS. Psychological distress among carers and the moderating effects of social support. BMC psychiatry. 2020;20:1-9.
  17. Whatnall MC, Patterson AJ, Siew YY, Kay-Lambkin F, Hutchesson MJ. Are Psychological Distress and Resilience Associated with Dietary Intake Among Australian University Students? International journal of environmental research and public health. 2019;16(21):4099.
  18. Carriedo A, Cecchini JA, Fernández-Río J, Méndez-Giménez A. Resilience and physical activity in people under home isolation due to COVID-19: A preliminary evaluation. Mental Health and Physical Activity. 2020;19:100361.
  19. McHugh JE, Lawlor BA. Exercise and social support are associated with psychological distress outcomes in a population of community-dwelling older adults. Journal of health psychology. 2012;17(6):833-44.
  20. Storm V, Reinwand DA, Wienert J, Tan S-L, Lippke S. The Mediating Role of Perceived Social Support Between Physical Activity Habit Strength and Depressive Symptoms in People Seeking to Decrease Their Cardiovascular Risk: Cross-Sectional Study. JMIR Mental Health. 2018;5(4):e11124.
  21. Glazier R, Elgar F, Goel V, Holzapfel S. Stress, social support, and emotional distress in a community sample of pregnant women. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics & Gynecology. 2004;25(3-4):247-55.
  22. Hemmati, R. & RahimiAliabadi, A.. Investigating the relationship between social support and mental health (a case study of women in Khalkhal). Iranian Social Science Studies. 2014; 11 (42): 105-119. (in Persian).
  23. Hansson K, Cederblad M, Lichtenstein P, Reiss D, Pedersen N, Belderhiser J, et al. Individual resiliency factors from a genetic perspective: results from a twin study. Family process. 2008;47(4):537-51.
  24. Hughes R, Kinder A, Cooper CL. The Wellbeing Workout: Springer; 2018.
  25. Organization WHO. Mental health and psychosocial considerations during the COVID-19 outbreak, 18 March 2020. World Health Organization; 2020.
  26. Alsalhe TA, Aljaloud SO, Chalghaf N, Guelmami N, Alhazza DW, Azaiez F, et al. Moderation effect of physical activity on the relationship between fear of COVID-19 and general distress: A pilot case study in Arabic countries. Frontiers in Psychology. 2020;11.
  27. Munro BH. Statistical methods for health care research: lippincott williams & wilkins; 2005.
  28. Craig CL, Marshall AL, Sjöström M, Bauman AE, Booth ML, Ainsworth BE, et al. International physical activity questionnaire: 12-country reliability and validity. Medicine & science in sports & exercise. 2003;35(8):1381-95.
  29. Moghaddam MB, Aghdam FB, Jafarabadi MA, Allahverdipour H, Nikookheslat SD, Safarpour S. The Iranian Version of International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in Iran: content and construct validity, factor structure, internal consistency and stability. World applied sciences journal. 2012;18(8):1073-80.
  30. Campbell‐Sills L, Stein MB. Psychometric analysis and refinement of the connor–davidson resilience scale (CD‐RISC): Validation of a 10‐item measure of resilience. Journal of Traumatic Stress: Official Publication of The International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies. 2007;20(6):1019-28.
  31. Keyhani M, Taghvaei D, Rajabi A, Amirpour B. Internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis of the Connor-Davidson Resilience Scale (CD-RISC) among nursing female. Iranian journal of medical education. 2015;14(10):857-65.
  32. Yaghubi H. Psychometric properties of the 10 questions Version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K-10). Applied Psychological Research Quarterly. 2016;6(4):45-57.
  33. Rajabi, Gh., & HashemiSheikhShabani, S. I. Investigating the psychometric properties of the multidimensional scale of imaginary social support. Journal of Behavioral Sciences. 2011; 5 (4): 364-357. (in Persian).
  34. ESLAMI A, MAHMOUDI A, KHABIRI M, NAJAFIYAN SM. THE ROLE OF SOCIOECONOMIC CONDITIONS IN THE CITIZENS'MOTIVATION FOR PARTICIPATING IN PUBLIC SPORTS. 2014; 2(3): 89-104.
  35. eskandarnejad m, alizadeh r, mollaei zangi f. The Predictive Role of Physical Activity Level on the Level of Anxiety in Medical Staff during Corona Peak. Sport Psychology Studies. 2020;9(32):185-200.
  36. Sheikh M, Mansourjozan Z, Amini M. The Effect of Physical Activity and Training of Progressive Muscle Relaxation on the Level of Anxiety and Perceived Stress in Patients With Covid-191. 2020.
  37. Zschucke E, Renneberg B, Dimeo F, Wüstenberg T, Ströhle A. The stress-buffering effect of acute exercise: Evidence for HPA axis negative feedback. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015;51:414-25.
  38. Kang H-W, Park M, Wallace JP. The impact of perceived social support, loneliness, and physical activity on quality of life in South Korean older adults. Journal of sport and health science. 2018;7(2):237-44.
  39. Bandura A. Self-efficacy: toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological review. 1977;84(2):191.
  40. Ajzen I. From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. Action control: Springer; 1985. p. 11-39.
  41. Malm C, Jakobsson J, Isaksson A. Physical Activity and Sports—Real Health Benefits: A Review with Insight into the Public Health of Sweden. Sports. 2019;7(5):127.
  42. Aftab R, Shams A. Relationship Between Integrated Self-Knowledge and Resilience with Anxiety of Being Infected by COVID-19: The Mediating Role of Intolerance of Ambiguity, Worry, and Physical Activity. Sport Psychology Studies. 2020;9(32):201-26.
  43. Klaperski S, von Dawans B, Heinrichs M, Fuchs R. Does the level of physical exercise affect physiological and psychological responses to psychosocial stress in women? Psychology of Sport and Exercise. 2013;14(2):266-74.
  44. Tsatsoulis A, Fountoulakis S. The protective role of exercise on stress system dysregulation and comorbidities. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 2006;1083(1):196-213.
  45. Chen P, Mao L, Nassis GP, Harmer P, Ainsworth BE, Li F. Wuhan coronavirus (2019-nCoV): The need to maintain regular physical activity while taking precautions. Journal of sport and health science. 2020;9(2):103.
  46. MOLANOURI SM, AMANI SS. Exercise Training, Immune System, and Coronavirus. 2020; 12 (46): 17-40
  47. González-Lázaro J, Frutos de Miguel J, Arribas Cubero H, Rodríguez-Marroyo J. ANALYSIS OF THE RESILIENCE SCALE IN MOUNTAIN RUNNERS ANÁLISIS DE LA ESCALA DE RESILIENCIA EN CORREDORES POR MONTAÑA. Http://cdeporte.rediris.es/revista/
  48. Aras D, Ewert AW. The effects of eight weeks sport rock climbing training on anxiety. Acta Medica Mediterranea. 2016;32(1):223-30.
  49. Dobler CL, Krüger B, Strahler J, Weyh C, Gebhardt K, Tello K, et al. Physical Activity and Mental Health of Patients with Pulmonary Hypertension during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020;9(12):4023.
  50. Deuster PA, Silverman MN. Physical fitness: a pathway to health and resilience. US Army Medical Department Journal. 2013. http://www.cs.amedd.army.mil/amedd_journal.aspx